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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report August 1, 1957"

No. 



August 1, 1.957 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 



REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram 
Minister 



F.A. MacDougall 
Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Possible Effects of Forest Fire on Big Game in the Sioux 
Lookout Forest Protection District . - by A. T. Cringan 



Page 



Annual Changes in Numbers of the Western Region Deer Herd. 11 

- by R. Boultbee 

The Winter of 1955/56 and the Western Region Deer Herd, 

- by R. Boultbee 13 

Variability in Deer Age-Measurements, Western Region 1951 to 

1956 Inclusive. - by R. Boultbee 18 

Deer Sample Size for Western Region. - by R. Boultbee 25 

Seasonal Effects and the Western Region Deer Herd. 

- by R. Boultbee 28 

The Manitoulin Archery Season in 1956. - by W. A. Morris 32 

Report on the 1956 Deer Season in the Sault Ste. Marie 
Forest District, 

- by M. W. I. Smith, C. L„ Perrie and M. T. Watson 43 

1956 Deer Report - Kemptville District. - by J. B. Dawson 52 

* 

Kenora District Winter Deer Mortality Survey, 1957. 

- by V. Macins 63 

The 1956 Deer Hunt Report, Pembroke District. 

- by K. K. Irizawa 64 

The 1956 Deer Season in Pembroke Forest District. 

-• by K. K. Irizawa 71 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemanaug1957onta 



POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRE ON BIG GAME 
IN THE SIOUX LOOKOUT FOREST PROTECTION DISTRICT 

by 
A. T. Cringan 



Introduction 

Ideal conditions for moose and white-tailed deer happen in 
the early successional stages of a forest, whereas those for woodland 
caribou usually occur in the climax. Therefore changes in the age- 
classes of forests likely affect the relative abundances of these 
ungulates. Three important succession-initiating factors have 
operated in the Sioux Lookout Forest Protection District in recent 
years - forest fire, logging and the spruce budworm. These have 
altered the ages of the forests and so have probably affected big 
game populations. 

The purpose of this paper is to summarise the recent fire 
history of the district so as to facilitate interpretation of changes 
in big game populations. The effect of logging and forest insects 
should also be analyzed, and the results integrated with those of 
this study for a full understanding of the problem. 

The Sioux Lookout Forest Protection District comprises 
40,660 square miles, of which 33? 74$ are land. 

Forest Protection Prior to 1926 

No data concerning acreages burned annually prior to 1926 
are available. Some residents think that the number of forest fires 
increased around 1910, when the trans-continental line of the 
Canadian National Railways was built. They also believe that fires 
were just as bad immediately prior to 1926 as they were in the 
period just following. Therefore I shall use the average area burned 
annually between 1926 and 1940 as an estimate of annual losses prior 
to 1926. 

Areas Burned Since 1926 

The average area burned annually has decreased greatly 
since 1926, as shown in Table I, based on data taken from District 
Annual Reports. The mean area burned annually between 1941 and 1955 
was less than one-fifth of the average between 1926 and 1940. 

The area burned over in 1956, 135 square miles, was the 
largest in any year since 1948, when 167 square miles were burned 
over, and the second largest since 1937. Consequently, the total 
area burned between 1956 and I960 will likely be greater than average 
five-year totals experienced since 1940; future 10-year and 15-year 
totals will not necessarily be influenced as greatly. 



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- 3 - 



Effect of Forest Fire on Age Composition of the Forest 

Changes in the ages of the forests of the Sioux Lookout 
Forest Protection District as a result of fires may be computed 
using the foregoing information. Computations are subject to the 
following assumptions; 

(1) that areas burned annually prior to 1926 were of the same size 
as those burned between 1926 and 1940. 



(2) 
(3) 



that 20% of all areas burned have already been burned within 
the last 1$ years. 



that 80% of all areas burned have not been burned for at least 
150 years; (the unreality of this assumption is admitted" it 
is to simplify computations). 



(4) that areas burned from 1956 to 19&0 will be essentially similar 
to those burned between 1946 and 195 5 • 

(5) that all other succession-initiating factors have little effect" 
(the unreality of this assumption is also admitted) . 

The results of the computations are given in Table II. 
Forest fire protection may already have markedly changed the areas 
of forests of certain ages in the district. For example, in 1940 
there were 1,&50 square miles of 0-15-year old burn, and in 1955 
there were only 260 square miles of such burn. At the same time, 
the area of mature forest has probably increased. If the present 
efficiency of forest fire protection is maintained , it is possible to 
predict the time during which stands of fire origin of particular 
ages will become scarce ; 



Stands of Fire Origin of 
Age-Class 

0t15 years 
16-30 years 
31-45 years 
46-60 years 
61-75 years 
76-90 years 



Years During Which Such Stands 
Will Decrease In Area 

1940-1955 
1956-1970 

1971-1935 

19S6-2000 
2001-2015 
2016-2030 



The area occupied by stands of fire origin less than 15 
years old has already been reduced to less than 15% of the area 
occupied by such stands prior to 1940. Similar reductions will 
eventually occur to all young age classes. 

While the decrease in areas of young timber is rapid, the 
relative increase in areas of mature timber is much slower. The 
computed area of old (151-years and over) forest increased by only 
11% between 1940 and 1955. 



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Effect of Habitat Changes on Moose 

Burned-over areas seem to provide the best conditions 
for moose within 15 years of being burned. Such areas have been 
assigned a carrying capacity of four moose per square mile (Table 
III)^ 16-30-year old stands, two moose per square mile, 31-45-year 
old stands, one moose per square mile, and older stands, four square 
miles per moose. 

The carrying capacity of the Sioux Lookout Forest Protec- 
tion District may have been 20,000 moose in 1940, 13 ,000 of these 
on the 5a 550 square miles of forests of fire origin less tha n 45 
years old l In the absence of other succession-initiating factors, 
the carrying capacity is likely to drop to 10,000 moose by 19^5? of 
which only 1^300 will be carried on the 7^0 square miles of forests 
of fire origin less than 45 years old. 

The projected decline in moose carrying capacity is rapid, 
and is directly proportional to the decrease in area burned annually. 

Effect of Habi tat Cha nges on White-tailed Deer 

I am unable to suggest how deer populations in the 
district may be influenced by forest fire protection, as they are 
more strongly affected by other variables such as weather than are 
moose. I suspect that the carrying capacity for deer will decrease 
more and earlier than that for moose. 

Effect of Habitat Changes on Woodland Caribou 

The woodland caribou fares best in mature stands, is 
present in forests approaching maturity, and absent from young 
forests. I have assigned a carrying capacity of one caribou per 
10 square miles to forests between 91 and 150 years in age, and of 
one caribou per five square miles to older forests. 

The carrying capacity of the forest protection district 
may have been about 3, $00 woodland caribou in 1940 (Table IV). 
It should gradually increase to 4*500 by 1975 and 5*000 by the year 
2,000, as the area of mature forest slowly builds up. 

The carrying capacity of woodland caribou increases much 
more slowly (Figure I) than that of moose decreases. 

Discussion 

Forest fire protection, in the absence of other succes- 
sion-initiating factors like logging, may cause the moose carrying 
capacity to decline rapidly and the woodland caribou carrying capa- 
city to increase slowly. The combined carrying capacity for all 
species of big game undoubtedly decreases. 

This phenomenon can certainly be expected in the 
hinterland portions of the Sioux Lookout Forest Protection District, 



- 7 - 



where logging is unlikely to begin for many years, and in adjacent 
parts of the Patricia West and Patricia Central Wildlife Management 
Districts where forest protection is now being practiced. 

The projected change in moose carrying capacity may have 
far greater management consequences than a drop from 20,000 to 
10,000 would indicate. If the 1940 moose population had reached the 
capacity of the range, there would have been about 13,000 moose on 
5,550 square miles of good range. This would have been a healthy 
population capable of sustaining a kill of 25% or 35% annually - 
between 3>200 and 4,500 harvestable moose each year. The availability 
of this density of surplus moose would make hunting - and management 
- much easiero On the other hand, by 19&5 there may only be 1,300 
moose on good range having high productivity, which will sustain a 
harvest of only 450 to 625 animals per year. The remaining 8,200 moose 
in the district may sustain a kill of 10% or 15%, owing to a lower 
productivity of animals. The total allowable harvest by 19$5 is 
likely to be between 1,270 and 1,855 moose per year. Had the range 
conditions of 1940 been stabilized, a total harvest of between 3>905 
and 5 ? 555 moose might have been maintained. 

It will become increasingly difficult to persuade hunters 
to harvest moose in the future, owing to the anticipated decrease in 
yield. 

Projected increases in caribou carrying capacity will not 
commence soon enough or be sufficient to compensate for decreases in 
moose carrying capacity. The over-all supply of big game is bound 
to deteriorate in areas influenced by forest fire protection but not 
by logging. 

There were estimated to be about 9 S 300 moose in the Sioux 
Lookout Forest Protection District in the fall of 1953, at which 
time the carrying capacity (Table II) was computed to be about 
15,000 moose. As the population continues to increase and as the 
capacity is certainly declining, the two should soon come into 
balance, perhaps in 1957 or 1958. This situation could conceivably 
detonate a moose crash. Only time will tell I 

On the other hand, I estimated there to be only about 
2,000 woodland caribou in the district in 1955? when the computed 
carrying capacity (Table IV) was 4>100. It should take the caribou 
at least several years, perhaps 10 or more, to reach the general 
capacity of the range within the district. 

Some management problems raised by this consideration are 
as follows; 

(1) Is the moose going to decline as a result of improved fire 

protection, or will gains in the form of succession initiation 
through logging compensate for this? 



- s - 

(2) Are we prepared to manage the woodland caribou as the quality 
of its range gradually improves? 

(3) Have these suggestions implications which we should work into 
our present public relations program? Specifically - how much 
longer can the present moose irruption last? Will it not 
shortly crash either because of our failure to contain the 
population or because of changes in the range? Should we not 
prepare for a decline in the moose population in the immediate 
future? 





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- 11 - 



ANNUAL CHANGES IN NUMBERS OF THE WESTERN REGION DEER HERD 



by 
R. Boultbee 



The results of the Western Region Fall Deer Check Station 
from 1951 to 1956 inclusive are given in table one in percentage 
form 



AVE. 



TABLE 


I - Game 


Check 


Percentages 














Check 






A g 


e - c 1 


asses 






























Year 


1.5 


2.5 


3.5 


4.5 


5.5 


6.5 


7.5 


8.5 


9.5 


Total 


1951 


21.4 


15.5 


25.7 


18.9 


9.2 


6.8 


1.0 


1,0 


a. 5 


100.0 


1952 


32.6 


15.3 


11.5 


15.9 


8.9 


5.7 


5.7 


2.5 


1.9 


100.0 


1953 


37.4 


30.1 


16.4 


7.5 


3.4 


2 7 


2.3 


0.2 


0.0 


100.0 


1954 


28,5 


37.3 


16.6 


5.4 


3.9 


4.4 


3.1 


0.8 


0.0 


100,0 


1955 


28.3 


29.6 


21.8 


10ol 


3.7 


2.6 


2.6 


1.3 


0.0 


100.0 


1956 


22o2 


21.2 


31.2 


15.7 


4.6 


1.9 


2.4 


0.8 


0.0 


100,0 



TOTAL 170.4 149.0 123.2 73.5 33.7 24.1 17.1 6.6 2.4 600.0 



28.5 24.9 20.5 12,2 5.6 4.0 2,8 1,1 0.4 



Exp 
vigorous, and 
paper traces 
representativ 
that animals 
the preceding 
is perfectly 
progressive c 
compensate ea 
probably cons 



erience has shown that three year old deer are the most 

suffer the least from the rigours of winter. This 
the changes in herd numbers, starting in 1951 with a 
e herd of one hundred animals. The assumption is made 
aged 3.5 years suffered average mortality each year in 

twelve months. It is not claimed that this assumption 
correct but it is a reasonable basis for speculation on 
hanges in herd numbers. To some extent the errors should 
ch other so that the yearly changes in numbers are 
ervative. 



The bottom row of table one shows that a six years 9 average 
of 24.9 deer aged 2.5 are reduced to 20,5 animals one year later. 
This is a survival of 82.3 percent. If this survival rate is applied 
to 2.5 year animals in the 1951 check we can expect 15.5 (0.823) = 
12.8 animals of age 3.5 in 1952. Table two is constructed on this 
basis. The line for 1951 is the same as in table one except that it 
now represents a typical herd of one hundred animals. In the 1952 
line it is seen that the 3»5 year animals are set at 12.8 as calcula- 
ted above. The remainder of the 1952 line is filled in by altering 
the values of table one in the ratio of 12.8/11.5. Thus 32.6 animals 
of age 1.5 in the 1952 line of table one become 36.3 animals in table 
two. 



- 12 - 

The 17o0 animals of age 2.5 in table two for 1952, when 
multiplied by 82.3 percent yield 14.0 animals aged 3 • 5 in 1953.. The 
numbers for 1953 in table one are then multiplied by the ratio 14.0/ 
16.4 to complete the 1953 line of table two. These steps are 
repeated till table two is completed. 

TABLE II - Progressive Changes in Herd Numbers 









A g 


e - c 


las 


s e 


s 








Check Year 


1.5 


_.2,5 


3.5 


4.5 


5*5 


6.5 


7.5 


8.5 


9.5 


Total 


1951 


21.4 


15o5 


25.7 


18.9 


9.2 


6.8 


1.0 


1.0 


0.5 


100,0 


1952 


36.3 


17.0 


12,8 


17.8 


9.9 


6.3 


6.3 


2 o 8 


2.1 


111.3 


1953 


31.9 


25,7 


14,0 


6.4 


2.9 


2.3 


2.0 


0.2 


0.0 


85.4 


1954 


36.5 


47*7 


21.2 


6.9 


5.0 


5.6 


4.0 


1.0 


0.0 


127.9 


1955 


50.9 


53*3 


39.2 


18.2 


6.7 


4.7 


4.7 


2.3 


0.0 


180.0 


1956 


31,2 


29. 8 


43,9 


22,1 


6,5 


2 . 7 


3,4 


1.1 


0.0 


140,7 



The column of totals at the right hand side of table two 
purports to follow the annual changes in a representative herd that 
started with one hundred members in 1951. 

There is a mechanism in this procedure for estimating 
absolute deer herd numbers but the writer is not rash enough to 
recommend its use. If the Spring mortality survey and the Fall check 
become accurate enough, the sample of dead animals in the mortality 
survey can be equated with the change in numbers indicated by the 
Fall check. The sampling is not yet accurate enough, as can be seen 
in table two. For the most part the numbers decrease as they should, 
proceeding downward diagonally from the left, but two large dis- 
crepancies and several small ones can be found. These discrepancies 
are probably due to errors in aging and sampling, Selectivity by 
hunters may also be a contributing factor. Such influences will be 
difficult to eliminate. 



- 13 - 

THE WINTER OF 1955/56 

AND THE WESTERN REGION DEER HERD 

by 
R. Boultbee 



The Wildlife Management officers of the three Districts 
in the Western Region made deer mortality surveys in the Spring of 
1956. As a result of their findings they predicted that hunter 
success would be down in the Fall of 1956 and that the proportion 
of young animals would drop. 

The predictions proved to be true. It will be interes- 
ting to study the changes that occurred in the herd as traced by 
the game checks of 1955 and 1956, and to see what indications, if 
any, of the changes could be seen in the Spring mortality surveys. 

The most interesting point is the proportions of the herd 
in the kill of 1956 as compared to the average from 1951 to 1956 
inclusive (the period during which game checks have been made). 
This is done in figure one on a percentage basis. 

The next step is to trace the change from the proportions 
of 1955 to those of 1956 as indicated by the kill data. These are 
given in table one. 



FIGURE I 



- 14 - 



P 
e 
r 
c 

e 
n 
t 

o 

f 

H 
e 
r 
d 



40 



30 



20 



/ 



A 1956 
/ Kill 
^ Curve 



\ 



\ 



10 







Age \ 

Class 
Averages 
1951-1956 
Inclusive 




Age Class Averages 


1951-1956 


Incl. 


1.5 years 


28.5$ 


2.5 years 


24.9$ 


3.5 years 


20.5$ 


4.5 years 


12.2$ 


5.5 years 


5.6$ 


6.5 years 


4.0$ 


7.5 years 


2.8$ 


£.5 years 


1.1$ 


9.5 years 


0.4$ 



r 1 r 1 r 1 1 1 

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 
1956 Kill Curve and Six Years 9 Average 



100.0$ 



Figure one shows that there was indeed a deficit of young 
deer in the 1956 game check and also of old animals. The three and 
a half year animals seemed to withstand the winter much better than 
other ages, and time may prove this age to be the most hardy. 



TABLE I - Kill Data in Percentages 













A F, 


e 


C 1 a 


s s e 


s 






Tota: 






1, 


.? 


2, 


•? 


3« 


.? 


4.5 


lii 


6^ 


1*1 


Li 


Ls 


1955 
1956 


28, 
22, 


.3 
.2 


29< 
21, 


,6 
,2 


21, 
31. 


,8 
,2 


10.1 
15.7 


3.7 

4.6 


2.6 
1.9 


2.6 
2.4 


1.3 
0.8 


100, 
100 


,0 
,0 



- 15 - 

From table one it can be seen that the deficits in the 
1956 data are still present with relation to the 1955 data, as well 
as with relation to the six years 9 average. The relationship will 
be still more evident if we use absolute numbers rather than per- 
centages, as follows. We take advantage of the fact that 3-5 year 
animals in 1956 seemed to be the least affected by mortality. Let 
us assume that only average mortality occurred in this age-class. 
Mortality may well have exceeded the average but we have no way of 
knowing by how much, and the results we secure must be accepted as 
a minimum condition. The problem is therefore to apply the average 
rate of mortality to the 29.6 animals of age two and a half in 1955. 
The average rate of decrease from 2.5 years to 3.5 years is in the 
ratio of 20.5/24.9 (secured from figure one). Therefore we multiply 
29.6 by 20.5/24.9 and get the answer 24.4. 

We can now construct a new table of the 1955 and 1956 data. 
In table two we repeat the 1955 figures but this time we view them 
as representing a herd of one hundred deer and not as percentages. 
In the 1956 line we place the figure 24.4 (obtained in the preceding 
paragraph) in the 3.5 year age class. These 24.4 deer represent the 
remnant of 29.6 deer a year earlier, assuming average mortality. 
The next step is to complete the 1956 line so as to have the same 
relationships within the line as previously. This is done by 
reducing all the 1956 percentages in the same ratio as the 3.5 year 
animals. Thus the 1956 percentage of 31.2 in table one is reduced 
to 24.4 animals in table two. Each other 1956 percentage is reduced 
similarly. Thus 22.2 in table one is multiplied by 24.4/31.2 and 
yields 17.4 to go in table two. 

TABLE II - Chan ge in Herd Numbers 

Age Class 

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 3.5 Totals 

1955 28.3 29.6 21.8 10.1 3.7 2.6 2.6 1.3 100.0 

1956 17.4 16.6 24.4, 12.3 3.6 1.5 1.9 0.6 78.3 

The herd is seen from table two to have been reduced to 
78.3, a reduction of 21.7 percent from 1955. This is assuming 
average mortality from 2.5 years to 3.5 years. If the mortality 
of these age classes was actually greater, then the figure of 21,7 
percent will be conservative. This difficulty can not be solved. 
If the discrepancy is great then the results could be seriously in 
error. In round numbers we can say that the 1955 herd suffered an 
above-average loss of approximately twenty percent (or one-fifth) 
presumably due to a hard winter. 

The data of table two are presented in figure two. A 
better idea of what happened to the 1955 herd can be had from this 
figure. P'or instance it is easily seen that the deficit is princi- 
pally in young animals, but also appears in old animals. Middle- 
aged animals seemed to come through the winter without being much 
affected, particularly the 3.5 year animals. 



FIGURE II 



- 16 - 



30 n 



20- 



10- 




Age Class — 
y , — — 1 ( j ( j y 

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 S.5 

Change in Herd Numbers 



In Kenora and Sioux Lookout Districts a total of twelve 
animals were aged in the Spring mortality survey of 1956. Their 
age-class distribution was as follows. 



TABLE III - Mortality Data 



1956 



S 1 p. r i n s. 


Age Classes 




1.0 2.0 3.0 
5 


4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 
14 1 


8.0 
1 



Totals 



12 



- 17 - 

By the Fall of 1956 these age classes would all be half 
a year older. They can be seen to correspond loosely to the deficits 
in the 1956 herd. If we continue our Spring mortality surveys till 
we acquire confidence and consistency we may predict the proportions 
of the Fall hunt with equal confidence. 

This paper is therefore a plea to our Western Region 
Wildlife Managers to continue developing their skill in running 
Spring mortality surveys. At the same time they should endeavour 
to assess winter factors such as temperatures, snow conditions, and 
durations of both factors, with regard to their effects on Spring 
mortality surveys. All inventory techniques will probably yield 
extra facts when related to each other. 



-IN- 
VARIABILITY IN DEER AGE-MEASUREMENTS 
WESTERN REGION 1951 TO 1956 INCLUSIVE 

by 
R. Boultbee 



Aging of killed deer during hunt season has become a well 
established practice wherever deer are found in the province. It 
is important to know the relative accuracy with which the various 
age classes have been measured. This paper studies the problem 
using data from the Western Region Big Game Checking Station, gathered 
from 1951 to 1956 inclusive. 

The data, omitting fawns, are given in table one in 
percentages. 



TABLE I - Deer Hunt Data in Percentages 







Age 


C 1 


ass 


e s 










Check 

Year 1.5 


2.5 


3.5 


4.5 


5.5 


6.5 


7.5 


lai 


9.5 


Aver- 
Totals ages 


1951 21.4 

1952 32.6 

1953 37.4 

1954 23.5 

1955 28.3 

1956 22.2 


15.5 
15.3 
30.1 

37.3 
29.6 
21.2 


25.7 
11.5 
16.4 
16.6 
21.8 
31.2 


18.9 
15.9 
7.5 
5.4 
10.1 
15.7 


9.2 
8.9 
3.4 
3.9 
3.7 
4.6 


6.8 
5.7 
2.7 
4.4 
2.6 

1.9 


1.0 
5.7 
2.3 
3.1 
2.6 

2.4 


1.0 

2.5 
0.2 
0.8 

1.3 
0.8 


0.5 
1.9 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 


100.0 11.1 
100.0 11.1 
100.0 12.5 
100.0 12.5 
100.0 12.5 
100.0 12.5 


TOTALS 170.2 


149.0 


123.2 


73.5 


33.7 


24.1 


17.1 


6.6 


2.4 


600.0 


AVGS. 28.4 


24.8 


20.5 


12.3 


5.6 


4.0 


2.9 


1.1 


0.4 


100.0 11.1 ? 


The average age 
the herd. 


class 


is seen to 


contain 11. 


1 percent of 



Table two repeats the same information but the age classes 
are staggered so that all percentages with the same year of origin 
appear on the same line. The year of origin (year class) is 
indicated in the left column. 

The right hand column of averages in table two shows a 
strong trend from small to large numbers going from top to bottom. 
This bias is due to incomplete data. The small numbers of older 
animals in the early year classes results in a small average, and 
vice versa. This bias is an introduced error which can be removed 
by adjusting each age class £0 that its average is 11.1, the same as 
the grand average. 



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- 21 - 

The bottom line of table three shows that each age class 
now averages 11.1. Reference to the right hand column of averages 
shows that the bias has been removed, leaving only irregularities 
due to differences in year class strength. These last irregularities 
can be ironed out by making the adjustments indicated by the right 
hand column of table three based on the year class difference from 
the grand average. These adjustments have been made in table four. 



tab: 


LE IV 


- Bias 


and Year CI 


ass Irregularities 


Remov 


ed 










A 


g e 


C 1 a 


s s e 


s 








Year 




















Aver 


Class 


1.5 


2.5 


3-5 


4.5 


5.5 


6.5 


7.5 


S.5 


9.5 


Totals 


ages 


1942 


















11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


1943 
















10.3 


11.9 


22.2 


11.1 


1944 














9.5 


12.8 


11.0 


33.3 


11.1 


1945 












12.8 


12.8 


9.1 


9.6 


44.3 


11.1 


1946 










13.9 


12.0 


9.7 


10.0 


9.9 


55.5 


11.1 


1947 








16.3 


13.0 


8.4 


9.9 


9.9 


9.3 


66.8 


11.1 


1948 






15.2 


13.6 


7.8 


10.4 


9.7 


9.7 




66.4 


11.1 


1949 




6.3 


6.6 


10.8 


13.9 


14.2 


15.1 






66.9 


11.1 


1950 


9.3 


6.8 


12.2 


9.4 


14.4 


14.2 








66.3 


11.1 


1951 


14.8 


15.9 


6.7 


8.4 


9.6 










55.4 


11.1 


1952 


13.6 


17.1 


5.9 


8.0 












44.6 


11.1 


1953 


6.0 


10.7 


16.6 














33.3 


11.1 


1954 


12.9 


9.4 
















22.3 


11.1 


1955 


11.1 


















11.1 


11.1 


TOTALS 


67.7 


66.2 


63.2 


66.5 


72.6 


72.0 


66.7 


61.8 


62.8 


599.5 




AVGS. 


11.3 


11.0 


10.5 


11.1 


12.1 


12.0 


11.1 


10.3 


10.5 


99.9 


11.1 



The right hand column shows that both bias and year class 
differences have been removed. Only differences between age classes 
remain to be removed. These can be removed by replacing each item 
with its deviation from its age class average (shown in the bottom 
line). This operation is shown in table five. In this table the 
data have been folded together again by game check years rather than 
year classes. 



- 22 - 



TABLE V 


- Deviations 


From Age 


Class 


Averages 










(Bias 


I and 


Year Class Differences 


Removed 


t) 












A £ 


e C 


lasses 






-Check 




















Year 


1.5 


2.? 


?.;> 


4.5 


?.5 


6.5 


7.? 


8.5 


9.? 


1951 


-2.0 


-4.7 


4.7 


5.2 


1.8 


0.8 


-1.6 


0.0 


0.6 


1952 


3.5 


-4.2 


-3*9 


2 e 5 


0.9 


0.0 


1.7 


2.5 


1.4 


1953 


2.3 


4.9 


1.6 ■ 


-0.2 


-4.3 


-3.6 


-1.4 


-1.2 


0.6 


1954 


-5.3 


6.1 


-3.9 ■ 


-1.7 


1.8 


-1.6 


-1.3 


-0.3 


-0.9 


1955 


1.6 


-0.4 


-4.6 


-2.7 


2.3 


2.2 


-1.4 


-0.4 


-0.5 


1956 


-0.1 


-1.7 


6.1 


-3.1 


-2.5 


2.2 


4.0 


-0.6 


-1,2 



TOTALS 0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 0.0 



The figures in table five no longer represent deers they 
are merely deviations. In table five variations due to bias, year 
class strength and age class strength have been eliminated. Pre- 
sumably the principal remaining sources of variation are random 
error and aging error. The data of table five are repeated in 
figure one to permit easier interpretation. Items within the stan- 
dard error are attributable to random error. Items well beyond 
the standard error and in the vicinity of the ten or five percent 
confidence limits are open to interpretation as errors in age measure- 
ment. 

In general age classes with most of their items within 
the standard error can be classified as consistent and affected 
mainly be random errors. All age classes except 2.5 and 3.5 may 
thus be classified as satisfactory. Age classes 2.5 to 4.5 inclusive 
are shown separately in figure two, with the game check year placed 
beside each item. 



In figure two age class 2.5 is scattered but shows some 
pattern in that the last two game checks are within the standard 
error. Age class 4.5 has most of its points within the standard 
error but shows an interesting tendency to go lower each year. It 
will be interesting to watch the course of these two age classes. 
As it now stands age class 2.5 is badly affected by aging errors 
(perhaps spilling over from age class 3.5) but may be settling down. 

Age class 3.5 has every item badly scattered. There is 
no tendency to form a cluster and only one item is anywhere near 
the zero line. No time pattern is discernable other than wide skips 
in successive years. 

Whatever the cause, aging of 3.5 year old animals is 
subject to serious errors and appears in need of reconsideration. 



- ' 



- 23 - 

FIGURE I 



/ 

6 




+ 


t 










*€ RT. 


5 




-f 




4 








10$ CL 








+ 












4 


* 












+ 




3 


*■ 














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? 


+ 






+ 


* 


* 




+ 




* 




4 




* 




4 


+ 


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1 
2 










+ 


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i 




it 


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+ 


+ 




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+ 


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+ 


+ 








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■- 






+ 








Standard Error 


4 


to 


+ 


* 

+ 




■4 


4 






5 


+ 














10$ CL 


6 


- 














5fo CL 


7 


- 




















^ 


i ,., 


,. ..i ,,. 


Age Class 


i . 


1 i 



1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 



FIGURE II 



- 24 - 



7 
6 

5 

3 
2 

1 



•1 

■2 



-3 



-4 - 



+ 1954 +1956 



-5 



-6 



-7 



±0953 



+ 1955 



+ 1956 



~+ 



+ 1953 



* 



1952 



-f 1952 ' 1954 

+ 195,1 ±1215. 



+ 1951 



5% CL 



1951 10$ CL 



Standard F,rr> or 



+ 1952 



+ 1953 



+ 1954 



+ 1955 



+ 1956 Standard Error 



10fo CL 



id 



5% CL 



2.5 



3.5 



Age Class 
' 

4.5 



- 25 - 



DEER SAMPLE SIZE FOR WESTERN REGION 



by 
R, Boultbee 



You wrote me recently to ask what is an adequate sample 
of deer. In my opinion the answer given below is adequate for the 
Western Region and may apply in other parts of the Province. It is 
based on 1,297 deer 1.5 years and older checked in 1954, 1955 and 
1956. These animals were divided into twenty-five samples of thirty 
or more each, and the variations in age-classes served as the basis 
of the study. 

The simplest statement is the equation y _ 1274*30 

where y is the sample size including fawns, and x is the percentage 
margin of error acceptable to the deer worker. The margin of error 
will be exceeded only five times in a century and then probably by 
a very small amount. Most values will be much closer than the 
acceptable margin of error. 

As an example, how many deer should be sampled for an 
accuracy of two percent? Two squared is four, which when divided 
into 1274.30 gives a sample size of 318.575 which can be rounded 
off at 320. If as another example it is desired to know what per- 
centage of accuracy will be obtained with a sample of 200 deer we 
can place y at 200 and solve for x. We find x in this case is 
2.524 which we can round off at 2.5 percent. 

The equation is a good way of finding a compromise between 
the Wildlife Management Officer who wants high standards of accuracy 
and the administrator who has to find the men to do the sampling. 

Some persons prefer a graph to an equation. Figure one 
presents the equation in the form of a curve. As an example, to 
find what sample is needed for two percent accuracy, start from two 
on the lower edge of figure one and go up to the curve and then left 
to the answer which is about 316. This can be rounded off at 310 or 
320. The figure can also be used in the reverse manner. 

It may be asked what is meant by a certain margin of error 
if the sample data is presented percentically, or in other words as 
a representative herd of one hundred animals. It is meant that the 
collective errors of the various age classes will not add to more 
than the margin of error. 



- 26 - 

In the Western Region the two and a half year age class 
has a slightly larger margin of error than that for the whole sample. 
The remaining age classes have smaller margins of error than that 
of the whole sample. Fawns were not included in the study, although 
they are included in the equation and in figure one. It should be 
noted that the margin of error only applies to animals one and a 
half years and older although the sample size includes fawns. If, 
in taking a sample in any one year it is found that fawns are showing 
at more than 20 percent of the herd the total sample should be 
increased somewhat. 

The curve is more revealing than the equation. A little 
study makes it clear that a very large increase in sample size is 
needed above about 400 to get a small improvement in accuracy. 
Below about 100 a small decrease in sample size causes a large loss 
in accuracy. 

Care should be taken not to alter the sampling conditions. 
Sampling should extend through the season, as previously, and 
include animals from all parts where hunting occurs. 



FIGURE I 

1000 rr 



- 27 - 



900 



800 



700 V 



600- 



500- 



400 



300 



200 



100 

















I 
I 














L 


















<D \ 
N \ 
•H \ 
CO \ 










CD \ 

i \ 

Cti \ 
CO \ 


































\ 








Margin c 


>f Error Pc 


ircent 


' i 



- 2d - 



SEASONAL EFFECTS AND THE WESTERN REGION DEER HERD 

by 

R. Boultbee 



In the Spring of 1956 Wildlife Management Officers in the 
Western Region predicted that hunting success would drop in the Fall 
from its position in 1955> and that the proportion of young animals 
would drop. Both predictions proved to be correct. 

It will be interesting to see to what extent the six Fall 
deer checks made in Western Region vary from their average, and 
speculate on the part played by seasons, especially winters. Table 
one presents the six years data in percentage form. 

TABLE I - Game Check Percentages 









Age 


- c 1 


ass 


e s 










Check 






















Years 


1.5 


2.5 


3-5 


4.5 


5.5 


6.5 


7.5 


8.5 


9.5 


Total 


1951 


21.4 


15.5 


25.7 


18.9 


9.2 


6.8 


1.0 


1.0 


0.5 


100.0 


1952 


32.6 


15.3 


11.5 


15.9 


8.9 


5.7 


5.7 


2.5 


1.9 


100.0 


1953 


37.4 


30.1 


16.4 


7.5 


3.4 


2.7 


2.3 


0.2 


0.0 


100.0 


1954 


28.5 


37.3 


16.6 


5.5 


3.9 


4.4 


3.1 


0.8 


0.0 


100.0 


1955 


28.3 


29.6 


21.8 


10.1 


3.7 


2.6 


2.6 


1.3 


0.0 


100.0 


1956 


22.2 


21.2 


31.2 


15.7 


4.6 


1.9 


2.4 


0.8 


0.0 


100.0 



TOTAL 170.4 149.0 123.2 73.5 33.7 24.1 17.1 6.6 2.4 600.0 
AVER. 28.5 24.9 20.5 12.2 5.6 4.0 2.8 1.1 0.4 

These are hunting figures broken into age classes, but are 
assumed to be a sample of the herd in the Fall. The bottom line is 
the average for the six years of the game check. Table two is a 
collection of the surpluses or deficits of table one above or below 
the six year averages. For instance in 1951 the value of 21.4 for 
animals aged 1.5 years is 7.1 below the average of 28.5. Table two 
shows a value of -7.1. 



TABLE II - Surpluses and Deficits from Age-class Averages . 









A g e - c 


lass 


e s 










J*l 


2-5 


3-5 


4.5 


5-5 


6.5 


7.? 


8.5 


9.? 


1951 


-7.1 


-9.4 


+5.2 


+6.7 


+3.6 


+2.8 


-1.8 


-0.1 


+0.1 


1952 


+4.1 


-9.6 


r9.0 


+3.7 


+3.3 


+1.7 


+2.9 


+1.4 


+1.5 


1953 


+8.9 


+ 5.2 


-4.1 


-4.7 


-2.2 


-1.3 


-0.5 


-0.9 


-0.4 


1954 


0.0 


+12.4 


-3.9 


-6.8 


-1.7 


+0.4 


+0.3 


-0.3 


-0.4 


1955 


-0.2 


-4.7 


+1.3 


-2,1 


-1.9 


-1.4 


-0.2 


+0.2 


-0.4 


1956 


-6.3 


-3.7 


+10.7 


+3.5 


-1.0 


-2.1 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.4 



- 29 - 

The data of table two are easiest to interpret by reference 
to figure one. The prediction made for the 1956 hunt is easily • 
checked because the deficit in young animals stands out clearly. 
A deficit may also be present in the oldest age classes but more 
shallow and spread out. The 1956 curve also shows a plain peak at 
age 3«5> indicating perhaps that this age-class is the hardiest by 
a distinct margin. In interpreting these curves it must be kept in 
mind that they are based on percentages, so that when one part goes 
down, another part must go up, resulting in differences showing up 
in sharper contrast than in other kinds of curves. 

The preceding observations on the 1956 curve are obviously 
not firm conclusions but they are reasonable enough to justify some 
speculation on the other curves. The 1955 curve is almost flat and 
may represent an average winter in 1954/1955 » The 1954 curve is the 
reverse of the 1956 curve and may represent better than average 
survival in the winter of 1953/1954. The 1953 curve shows ambiguous 
characteristics namely a high survival of young animals and a deficit 
in old animals. The curve of 1952 shows a high survival of young 
and old animals and may indicate a better than average winter in 
1951/1952, An inconsistency in age 2,5 animals is perhaps attribu- 
table to error in aging since a previous study shows this age class 
to have been too low in 1952. The 1951 curve may indicate hard 
conditions in the winter of 1950/1951. 

The 3.5 year age class served as a good determinant in each 
of the above curves. Surpluses and deficits are most easily seen 
in relation to the 3.5 year age-class, and the position of the 3.5 
year age-class above or below the axis indicated the assumed severity 
or favourableness of the winters. 

A check on the significance of the surpluses and deficits 
may be had from a Chi Square test. This is done in table three. 
Age-classes 7,5* $.5 and 9.5 were joined in one group. 

TABLE III 

Check Year Chi Square P (d.f. z 6) 

1951 15.33 

1952 19.85 

1953 S.51 

1954 11.33 

1955 2.52 

1956 10,09 

The curves for 1951 and 1952 vary from the average with 
strong significance. The curves for 1954 and 1956 are reasonably 
significant. The 1953 curve is not acceptable as different from the 
average, though the value of P is suggestive. The 1955 curve is 



0, 


,02 


0, 


,01 


0, 


.23 


0< 


,08 


0, 


,86 


0, 


,12 



- 30 - 

distinctly average. These findings correspond with those made from 
figure one. It is only an assumption to say that they are due to 
winter conditions but the writer thinks they justify an investigation 
of correlation between snow station records and deer population 
checks. 

Such a study may lead to the skill to predict the effects 
of winter on the deer herd in numerical terms. If this skill is 
added to the present practices of our Wildlife Management Officers 
the following annual routine might result: 

1. Estimate of effects of winter on the herd as the winter prog- 
resses, and estimate of consequent effects on the hunt. 

2. Confirmation and check of winter estimate coming from the Spring 
mortality survey, followed by a prediction of the coming hunt 
based on the two procedures. 

3. Fall check on the hunt. This will serve as a check on the 
Spring prediction, and lead to further refinements in gauging 
winter effects and predicting from the Spring mortality survey. 



mi 



n he combination of several approaches to population 
conditions gives a greater total of information, and a greater 
insurance against a mistaken prediction. Spreading the various 
population checks through the year means that the Wildlife Management 
Officers will not "lose touch" with the herd. 



- 31 - 



FIGURE I - Surpluses and Deficits 



+• 



-h 



1951 



+ 



1952 



1953 




1954 




+ 



1955 



1956 



/ 



Age Classes 



1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 



-.32 - 



MANITOULIN ARCHERY SEASON IN 1956. 

by 
William A, Morris 



Introduction 

This report deals with the events leading to the first 
archery season on Manitoulin Island, The success of the hunt is 
outlined, and recommendations are made for future seasons. 

The Sudbury office of the Department of Lands and Forests 
wishes to express its thanks to Mr. John Budd, Mr. W, J. Patterson, 
Mr, Art Racey, and Mr. Harry Loth for their efforts in initiating 
this season. 



A special archery season for Manitoulin Island was first 
suggested by Mr, John Budd, Biologist at the South Bay Fisheries 
Research Station, Mr. Budd made the suggestion while attending a 
meeting of the Manitoulin Conservation Council in May, 1956, because 
he was well acquainted with the successful archery season in his 
home state of Wisconsin, The idea met with only mild enthusiasm at 
that time; however, it did appeal to some of the local tourist opera- 
tors, since it appeared to be a way to increase the length of the 
season and yet not seriously deplete the deer herd. W. J. Patterson, 
editor of the Manitoulin Expositor, also expressed interest in the 
plan. The topic was raised again at the following meeting of the 
Council in June, but still no definite decisions were made. In an 
effort to get a final answer, Mr. Art Racey, a forester with the 
Ontario Paper Company and also secretary of the Council, conducted a 
telephone poll in late August of all the township representatives. 
The results of this poll showed that ten of the sixteen townships 
were in favour of a trial season from October 27th to November 10th, 
A signed letter to this effect was sent to Dr. W. J. K. Harkness 
early in September for his consideration. 

This proposed archery season was presented to the Fish and 
Wildlife Committee in early October, but during the intervening time, 
some of the Manitoulin residents, particularly landowners, became 
critical of the plan. It was suggested that the archers would "kill 
too many deer", "wound cattle" and so on. To offset these mis- 
understandings, the department initiated a public educational program. 
Two coloured films on hunting big game with the bow and arrow, and 
a film "The Michigan Deer Story", an excellent illustration of deer ) 
csanagement were shown by William A. Morris, District Biologist, at 
Gore Bay, Little Current, Mindemoya, Manitowaning, and South Bay 
Mouth. During these film showings, which took place over the period 
of a week, it was noted that an increasing number of residents spoke 
in favour of the archery season proposal. By the time the last film 



- 33 - 

showing was made, the archery season became law on October 5th, 
1956, by Amendment l#£/56 made under the Game and Fisheries Act. 
When the Sudbury office received word that the archery season had 
received official sanction, a specially prepared news release was 
forwarded to the twenty archery clubs throughout Ontario as well as 
to the names on the regular mailing list. A copy of this news 
release is included in the Appendix. 

In order to keep in close contact with the archery season 
progress, the Sudbury office arranged with the Little Current 
Chamber of Commerce to conduct registration of all archers at its 
Information Booth. However, it was found that few hunters were 
recorded in this way, and the Department was obliged to contact a 
large percentage of the archers through information supplied by 
local residents. By using this method, this office was able to 
obtain the names and addresses of thirty-four archers who took part 
in the season. Each one of the thirty-four people was mailed a 
simple questionnaire to be completed and returned to the office. A 
copy of this questionnaire is included in the Appendix. Every archer 
was asked to submit other names of persons known to have participated 
in the hunt. The archery clubs (see appendix) also assisted by 
reporting the names of their members who hunted on the Island during 
the special season. In this way, the Sudbury office obtained the 
names and addresses of all archers who took part in the hunt, with 
the exception of two non-residents who hunted a few hours in an 
area south of Little Current while awaiting transportation to 
Killarney. The results compiled from the questionnaire are shown in 
Table #1. 

It is of interest to note that aside from the actual 
residents, 59.3% of archers paid for accommodation in either a lodge, 
hotel or cabins. A minority (40.6%) camped or stayed at non- 
commercial establishments. These figures indicate that future 
archery seasons would be of financial benefit to the tourist business. 

During the special season, there were no reports of infrac- 
tions of the Game and Fisheries Act, wounding of cattle, or 
trespassing. The Department was notified that an archer v s guide was 
using a dog to drive deer in the vicinity of Gore Bay. This action 
brought complaints from the residents and some criticism from other 
archers. The dog was used for one weekend, after which time there 
were no further reports. It would appear that the archer realized 
that he had deviated from the accepted practice of both the residents 
of Manitoulin and his fellow archers. This incident was the only 
issue which resulted in any criticism of the archers. On the other 
hand, letters were received by the Sudbury Office from the Manitoulin 
Tourist Association, and the West Manitoulin Board of Trade, as 
well as from numerous archery clubs, expressing their approval of 
the special archery season and asking that it be continued. Copies 
of some of these letters are included in the Appendix. 

In order to further determine the public's reaction to a 
continuation of the archery season this year, William A. Morris, 
District Biologist, spent the greater part of a week in March, 1957, 
on Manitoulin Island, and with the cooperation of Conservation 
Officers C, J. Young and J. H. Bailey made personal contact with 
representatives of the Townships. The results of this poll are 
shown in Table #2. 



- 34 - 



TABLE I - Manitoulin Archery Season 



Number of Archery Hunters • ...... 3$ 

Number of questionnaires returned 37 

Percentage return . « • . . 97% 

Total number of days hunted . .. ...... 15$ 

Average number of days hunted 4«4 

Average Pull of 37 bows, Low - 35 lbs., High - 63 lbs.. 43.2 lbs. 

Number of deer missed . . 21 

Number of deer killed 

Number of partridge killed . 40 

Number of rabbits killed . .. 2 

Accommodations 



Lodge . . . . f 

Hotel 

Camping 

Cabin 

Residential Accommodation 

Island Resident 



eoeodooo«o««o*ooo««*oo 

ooooo»»*o**ooo0«o*eo«»e*ooo 

«oooooooooo«oooceo*oo0«e* 

• oooooeo©o««ooo«o*o«««oo««o 



• oop*«*oo««eoo 



a • o • a 

• a * * o 

o © • o * 

o o • • o 



• oeoo»o*o 



o • o 

• o • 
o o © 

• • o 



ooooe«oo« 

• oe»o«ooo 
0090000*0 



QOOOOOOQ 



8 

3 

4 
$ 

9 
5 



37 

Percentage of archers visiting Island - paid lodging... 59*3% 
Percentage of archers visiting Island - stayed at non- 
commercial establishments ...<> ........ ....... . 40.6% 



TABLE II - Poll of Representatives of Townships Regarding 
Manitoulin Archery Season in 1957. 



Township 



Allan 


yes 


Assiginack 


yes* 


Barrie Island 


no 


Bidwell 


yes 


Billings 


yes 


Burpee 


no 


Campbell 


yes 


Carnarvon 


yes 



Township 



Dawson 


yes 


Gordon 


yes 


Howl and 


yes 


Mills 


neutral 


Robinson 


yes 


Sandfield 


yes 


Sheguiandah 


yes 


Tehkummah 


neutral 



The reeve suggested that archery kills should be certified, and 
that archery season should overlap with the time that the South 
Bay Mouth-Tobermory ferry is in operation. 



During the poll (Table 2), it was found that twelve 
townships expressed a desire to continue the season, while two 
representatives were opposed and two were neutral. This indicates 
that more of the island is now in favour of archery hunting that 
prior to the opening of the experimental season, when the vote 
taken by Racey was ten "yes" to six "no". 



* 35. - 

Conclusions 

The Sudbury Office feels that the continuation of an 
archery season on Manitoulin Island in 1957 would meet with the 
approval of a large majority of the Island residents and it would 
also supply recreation for a large number of sportsmen. 

Recommendations 

From this study of the 1956 experimental archery season 
and subsequent inquiries, the following recommendations are respect- 
fully submitted? 

(1) The archery season for deer should be continued on Manitoulin 
Island in 1957. 

(2) The open season should be a period of two weeks or longer, 
prior to the regular gun season, which usually starts on 
November 15th. 

(3) Consideration should be given to having the season overlap 
with the time that the South Bay Mouth to Tobermory ferry is 
in operation. This would ensure easier access to the Island 
and greater revenue for the Islanders. The last scheduled 
trip is on October 28th, 1957. 

(4) The use of dogs to hunt deer on Manitoulin is subject to a 
great deal of controversy. Since most archers do not approve 
of the use of dogs for hunting, it is recommended that the use 
of dogs be prohibited during future archery seasons. 

(5) From a public relations standpoint, it would be an advantage 
and source of information for the Department to have each deer 
killed by archers certified by the local Conservation Officer. 

(a) The suggested dates for the 1957 archery season ares 
October 19th to November 9th, 1957 or October 26th to 
November 9th, 1957. 



- 36 - 

APPENDIX 



Weekly Report Sudbury District 
copy J r ■* 



For Period Ending October 6th, 1956 



Fish and Wildlife 

The Minister of the Department of Lands and Forests is 
pleased to announce a special archery season for deer on Manitoulin 
Island and Barrie Island from October 27th to November 10th inclu- 
sive,. During this period, the hunting of deer with firearms will 
be illegal. The archery season on Manitoulin Island has been 
established this year by Order-in-Council on an experimental basis 
with the approval of a majority vote of all township councils on the 
Island. 

Archers who are residents of Ontario will require a 
regular |5«00 deer licence. If they wish to take bear, rabbits, 
partridge, ducks or geese, they will require an additional $1.00 
resident hunting licence. Hunters who are not residents of Ontario 
will be permitted to take bear, rabbits, partridge, ducks and geese 
as well as deer during the season by obtaining a regular non-resident 
deer licence for $36.00. 

If an archer (resident or non-resident) succeeds in taking 
a deer, he will not be entitled to hunt deer during the regular gun 
season. If, however, the deer licence has not been filled during 
the archery season, he will be entitled to use the same licence to 
hunt deer during the regular gun season. 

Archers are reminded that the success or failure of future 
archery seasons on the Island may well depend on good hunter- 
landowner relationships during the initial season. In this respect, 
it would be well to remember all land on the Island is private, 
and although the majority of landowners are in favour of archers, 
some are not. Therefore, before you start your hunt, please make 
the necessary arrangements with the land owner . It may be of 
interest to prospective archers to know that Manitoulin Island has 
long been recognized as one of the best deer hunting areas in the 
province. This high population of deer is due to the good produc- 
tion of second growth hardwoods which is used for summer food, and 
extensive growth of white cedar which supplies winter browse. In 
addition, the snowfall on Manitoulin is generally lighter than that 
which occurs in the more northern parts of the Province. The success 
of hunters during the past regular gun seasons from November 15th 
to November 25th has been as high as 50%. Each season, well over 
1,000 deer are taken. 

The Manitoulin is accessible by road, rail, and aircraft, 
but unfortunately, the ferry which runs between Tobermory and South 
Bay Mouth will not be operating at this time. 



- 37 - 

Bear are scarce on the Island, but the partridge and the 
snow-shoe hare (rabbits), are abundant enough to supply good small 
game hunting for the archer. 

It is of interest to archers to note that the accommodation 
on the island ranges from well equipped lodges and hunting cabins 
to camping privileges. In addition, guides will be available and 
groceries and archery supplies may be purchased at local stores. 

All enquiries regarding accommodation and maps should be 
addressed tos 

Mr. John Tilston, Secretary, Mr. Graydon D. Hay, 

Manitoulin Tourist Assocation, or Chamber of Commerce, 
MANITOWANING, Ontario. LITTLE CURRENT, Ontario. 



or 

Mr. Adam Casson, Secretary, 

Rotary Club, 

GORE BAY, Ontario. 



Sgd. "William A. Morris" 



for W. G. Cleaveley, 

District Forester. 



copy - 38 - 



MANITOWANING, Ontario, 
November 30th, 1956. 



Dr. Clarke, 

Fish & Wildlife Division, 
Department of Lands & Forests, 
Parliament Buildings, 
TORONTO, Ontario. 

Dear Dr. Clarkes 

We are writing this in the hope that you will consider 
favourable an archery season on Manitoulin Island for 1957. 

As far as the executive of Manitoulin Tourist Association 
can learn there has been nothing but favourable comments from the 
local people about the archers. 

If there is to be a season in time that we can include 
that information in our 1957 folder. We would be much obliged 
if you can let us know as soon as possible the dates you may set. 

Yours truly, 



J. B. Tilston, Secty, 
Manitoulin Tourist Association. 



copy - 39 - 



WESTERN MANITOULIN BOARD OF TRADE 
GORE BAY, Ontario 



GORE BAY, Ontario, 
December 5th, 1956. 



Department of Lands & Forests, 
Fish and Wildlife Division, 
SUDBURY, Ontario. 

At tention; Mr, C. Bibby 

Dear Mr. Bibby i 

Please be advised that at a recent meeting of our Board 

of Trade, the following resolutions were passed; 

1. "That the Western Manitoulin Board of Trade go on record as 
being unanimously in favour of continuing the Archery Season for 
at least another year". 

2. "That we ask the Department of Lands and Forests for a 
permanent resident manager to attend to our Fish and Wildlife 
problems" . 

Please let us hear from you on these two resolutions. 
If the Archery Season is going to be continued, it should be 
included in the Tourist Association Advertising for 1957. 

Yours truly, 



M. McQuarrie, Secty. 



copy 



- 40 - 



Bushmaster Bowmen, 
217 Burton Road, 
OAKVILLE, Ontario, 
November 26th, 1956. 



Department of Lands & Forests, 
Fish and Wildlife Division, 
SUDBURY, Ontario. 

Dear Sirs 

In reply to your letter, none of the Bushmasters 
participated in the deer hunt this year due to previous arrange- 
ments, but quite a few intend to, next summer. 

Yours truly, 



Sgd. Wendy Weyman, 

Sec. -Treasurer. 



copy 



- 41 - 
BRANT BOWMEN 



199 Grand River Avenue, 
BRANTFORD, Ontario, 
November 28th, 1956. 



Mr. W. G. Cleaveley, 
District Forester, 
Department of Lands & Forests, 
SUDBURY, Ontario. 

Dear Sir; 

In answer to your letter wishing to contact all archers 
who participated in the recent archery season on Manitoulin Island, 
our club has no archers to add to your list. 

We do wish, however, to draw to your attention that ten 
of our members who went to the archery season in Michigan, would 
have gone to Manitoulin Island had we only known soon that there 
would be an archery season there. We appreciate the opportunity 
we had to shoot in Manitoulin, but having arranged to get time off 
work and make reservations in Michigan, we could not make use of 
the opportunity. 

We are definitely in favour of an archery season in 
Manitoulin Island and will certainly support it next year, provided 
we have enough time to make arrangements and reservations. 

And we do wish to thank you for the work you have done 
in this regard. 

Yours truly, 



Sgd. George McGowan, 
Secretary, 
The Brant Bowmen. 



- 42 - 



Archery Clubs in Ontario, 1956 



Blue Water Bowmen, 
c/o John E. Hammond, 
1275 - 3rd Ave., West, 
OWEN SOUND, Ontario. 

Brockville Fish & Game Club, 
c/o John Dixon, Archery Chairman, 
68 George Street, 
BROCKVILLE, Ontario. 

Chemical Valley Bowmen, 
c/o Robert Carter, 
496 Davis Street, 
SARNIA, Ontario. 

Forest City Archers, 
c/o Norm Goody, 
470 Charlotte Street, 
LONDON, Ontario. 

Glendale Archery Club, 
c/o Harry Loth, 
37 Glenridge Avenue, 
ST. CATHARINES, Ontario. 

King's Forest Archers, 
c/o Mrs. V. Kolmer, 
172 London Street, South, 
HAMILTON, Ontario. 

Oxford Archery Club, 

c/o Mrs. W. Stevenson, 

3 Vansittart Avenue, Apt.-5> 

WOODSTOCK, Ontario. 

Renfrew Archers, 

c/o Bruce McPhail, 

168 Raglan Street, South, 

RENFREW, Ontario. 

Woodland Field Archers, 
c/o Mrs. A. Kitchen, 
431 Centre Street, 
OSHAWA, Ontario. 

Belleville Bowmen, 
Geoff Calvert, 
c/o C. Belch, 
R . R . ff 6 , 
BELLEVILLE, Ontario. 



Brant Bowmen, 
c/o George McGowan, 
199 Grand River Avenue, 
BRANTFORD, Ontario. 

Bushmaster Bowmen, 
c/o Herb Brooks, 
$4 Cross Street, 
OAKVILLE, Ontario. 

Dunnville Bowmen, 
c/o Max Beckett, 
916 Pine Street, 
DUNNVILLE, Ontario. 

Gait Bowmen, 
c/o Herm Walters, 
85 Edwin Street, 
KITCHENER, Ontario. 

Grimsby Archery Club, 
c/o Art Harley, 
25 Elizabeth Street, 
GRIMSBY, Ontario. 

Ottawa Bowmen, 

c/o W. L. Ross, 

201 Metcalfe Street, Apt. 10, 

OTTAWA, Ontario. 

Port Colborne Bowmen, 
c/o Charles Goss, 
72 Homewood Avenue, 
PORT COLBORNE, Ontario. 

Windsor Bowmen, 
c/o Len Gensens, 
1986 Ellrose Avenue, 
WINDSOR, Ontario. 

York County Bowmen, 
c/o Miss Ella Inches, 
47 Brookmount Road, 
TORONTO, Ontario. 

Humber Valley Archers, 
c/o Gerry Barbcur, 
292 Evelyn Avenue, 
TORONTO, Ontario. 



Compiled bys 



Mr. Harry Loth, Secretary, 

Hunting and Field Archers of Ontario, 

November 14th, 1956. 



- 43 - 

REPORT ON THE 1956 DEER SEASON 
IN THE SAULT STEo MARIE FOREST DISTRICT 

by 

M. W. I. Smith, C. L. Perrie and M. T. Watson 



Introduction 

The value of accurate data on the total kill and on the 
composition of the kill during a deer season has been clearly- 
demonstrated. 

For several years now this district has obtained data on 
the non-resident kill including total numbers, percentage success 
of hunters, and age composition of the kill. In 1955 the first 
approach in this district to assessing the resident kill was made 
when the Elliot Haynes Company was engaged to conduct a ballot 
survey. In 1956, having learned some valuable lessons the previous 
year, an improved survey was carried out by our own staff and inclu- 
ded, for the first time, the kill by farmer deer licensees. 

This report, therefore, provides our most complete coverage 
of district deer hunters to date. 

Resident Hunters 

Methods 

During December, 1956, and January, 1957, a mailed ballot 
survey was conducted among a 25$ sample of the 5,000 Ontario deer 
hunters who bought licenses in this district. Lists of licensees 
were obtained from all license issuers and the hunter sample which 
comprised every fourth name appearing on these lists amounted to 
1,23$ hunters. 

The questionnaire, or ballot, mailed to these hunters, a 
sample of which appears as Appendix "A", was designed to provide data 
on the following^ 

(a) Total kill by residents 

(b) Percentage success of resident hunters 

(c) Townships in which deer were killed 

(d) Hunting days per hunter 

(e) Hunting days per deer bagged 

(f) Use of dogs, and opinion on use of dogs 

Initial contact with the 1,23$ sampled hunters was made on 
January 10th when the ballot, Appendix "A", was mailed. This was 
followed by two subsequent mailings on January 21st and on January 
31st with Appendices "B" and M C M , respectively. 



- 44 - 



Weather Conditions 



During the 1956 season temperatures were slightly above 
normal and precipitation was perhaps less than normal. Table #1 
shows the noon temperature records for several points in the district 
just prior to the season. 



TABLE I 












Date 


Peshu L, 


Sand L. 


Blind R« 


S.S.M. 


Average 


Oct. 15 


64 


58 


57 


64 


61 


Oct. 16 


64 


66 


54 


60 


61 


Oct, 17 


70 


65 


63 


76 


68 


Oct. IB 


43 


48 


53 


52 


49 


Oct. 19 


54 


58 


54 


54 


55 


Oct, 20 


58 


58 


52 


60 


57 


Oct, 21 


64 


52 


52 


60 


57 


Oct. 22 


58 


63 


54 


54 


57 


Oct. 23 


43 


39 


52 


48 


45 


Oct. 24 


42 




48 


46 


45 


Oct. 25 


55 




52 


54 


54 


Oct. 26 


46 




48 


46 


46 


Oct, 27 


44 




52 


54 


50 


Oct. 28 






44 






Oct. 29 






56 






Oct, 30 






56 






Oct, 31 






58 







Snow stations were in operation from November 1st and 
Table #2 records this information. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Date 

Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 12 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 14 
Nov. 15 
Nov. 16 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 19 
Nov. 20 
Nov. 21 
Nov. 22 
Nov. 23 
Nov. 24 
Nov. 25 
Nov. 26 



Batchawana 
Nil 



trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
• 2| w 
5|«« 

61" 
5|n 

3.3" 

2.0" 

1: 5" 

7.3" 
9.0" 
8.7" 



Sand L. 

Nil 



1" 

1" 

1.8" 

1.8" 

5.2" 

5.2" 

4.5" 

10" 

10" 

10" 

10" 

10" 

16" 

!§•§" 
18 8" 

18!8" 

20.0" 

20.0" 



Blind R. 
Nil 



In 
if" 

li" 



S.S.M, 
Nil 



1" 

2?« 

Isj 

i n 

1" 

li" 

n «s 

cts 

7" 
6" 

4.8" 
4,8" 

old 

h 

6" 

6" 

11" 

11" 



Twp. Wells 
Nil 



4" 
4" 



-45- 

Generally speaking, these weather conditions allowed 
access to all parts of the district but lack of snow reduced the 
opportunity of tracking. Small ponds first became frozen on 
November 14th. 

Data 

Initial sample ballots mailed - 1,236 : 100% 
Ballots returned, completed - 976 = 79% 

Since the original was a 25% sample, the nonrespondents, 
260 in number, reduced the overall sample to 19«3 percent. 

Of the 976 respondents, 40 - approximately 4 percent, 
hunted in areas outside the Sault Ste. Marie District. A further 
26 hunters - 3 percent of those who bought licences, did not hunt. 
Of the nonrespondents, 9 were returned because of incorrect 
addresses. 

As in 1955» the district has been broken into 6 areas for 
purposes of comparing success and total kill within the district. 
These areas are shown in Appendix "D". Table #1 presents, by area, 
the numbers and percentages of resident hunters and of resident-farmer 
hunters and their respective success. 



TABLE 


III 
















Area 


No. 


No. of 

Resident 

Hunters 


No. of 
Resident- 
Farmer 
Hunters 


Percentage 
of Hunters 


Percentage 
Residents 


Success 
Farmers 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 




14 

249 

295 

123 

22 

46 





6 
70 
36 

3 




1.6 

29.5 

42.1 

16.4 

2.5 

5.9 


26.6 
26.2 
26.1 
41.5 
36.4 
37.5 




50.0 
40.0 
34.2 


33.3 



Ontario residents who purchased deer licenses in this 

district numbered approximately 5.000. Of this number, 4 percent 

- 200, hunted outside the boundaries of this district. Thus, of the 
total number, 4>600 actually hunted in the district. 

Fourteen percent of the respondents to our survey indicated 
that they had hunted on a farmer's deer license. The total number 
of such licenses can, therefore, be calculated at 672. Returns by 
these licensees indicated a success of 36.7 percent. The total 
kill by these hunters is calculated, therefore, at 260 deer. 

The remaining 66 percent of the Ontario residents sampled 
in the survey hunted on a regular resident license. These residents 
numbered 4>126 and reported a success of 30.4 percent. Kill by these 
resident hunters is estimated at 1,245 deer. 



- 46 - 

The total kill by resident hunters, therefore, is 
estimated at 1,505 deer. Of these, 47. # percent were bucks, 3#.7 
were does and 13 .5 percent were fawns. 

The foregoing may be summarized as follows? 

License sales to residents of Ontario 5>000 . 

Licensees hunting outside of this district - 4% 200 

District hunters (Ontario residents) 4>#00 

Farmer deer licensees - 14% of sample 672 

Percentage success • 3#«7 

Estimated kill by farmer deer licensees 260 

Resident deer licenses - 86% of sample 4,128 

Percentage success 30.4 

Estimated kill by resident deer licensees ................. 1,245 

Total kill by Ontario residents 1,505 

deer. 

The average hunter spent 6.4 days hunting and it required 
an average of 20 hunter days to bag a deer. The average hunter 
reported seeing 2.6 deer or almost nine times as many as were shot. 

Approximately 29 percent of the hunters used dogs and 
42 percent favoured thoir use. Forty-two percent of those using 
dogs bagged a deer, as compared to 27 percent success by hunters 
who did not use dogs. 

Non-Resident Hunters 

The non-resident deer kill was sampled as in 1955 by 
personnel stationed at the ferry dock on weekends only. In this 
way a total of 224 non-resident deer hunters and 106 deer were 
checked. Of these, 72 hunters had bagged 45 deer outside this 
district. 

Thus, 152 non-resident hunters shot and exported 61 deer 
from this district. 

On the basis of this sample of 106, 57.5 percent, of the 
deer exported at the border had been shot in this district. 
Customs records show that a total of 515 deer were exported in 
1956. It follows then that 57.5 percent - or 296 of these were 
bagged in the Sault Ste. Marie District. 

The sample taken also indicated a 40 percent success by 
non-resident hunters. Thus, if non-resident hunters bagged 296 
deer in this district with 40% of the hunters successful, we must 
have had a non-resident population of 740. 

Percentage composition of the non-resident kill was as 
follows l 



- 47 - 



Bucks - 46 percent? does - 31 percent* and fawns - 23 percent. 
Aging was possible only on 50 of the ol deer checked. 
Age distribution was as follows: 



4s 



10 
20 
7 
S 
5 



Total deer kill in the district 



Resident hunters 
Farmer-hunters 
Non-resident hunters 

Total 



1,245 
260 
296 

1,301 



Discussion and Summary 

The survey of the 1956 deer season was 
(a) a checking station at the ferry dock and (b) 
survey for resident and farmer hunters patterned 
ducted in 1955 through Elliot Haynes Limited. 



conducted bys 
a mailed ballot 
after that con- 



It was estimated that approximately 4, $00 residents hunted 
in the district, and killed 1,505 deer. Of these, residents who 
hunted on farmers' licenses numbered 672 and killed 260 deer. The 
success of the farmers was estimated at 3$. 7 percent and that of 
other residents at 30.4 percent. The significant number of farmers 9 
licenses sold and their relatively high rate of success emphasizes 
the need for continuing to obtain figures on this portion of the 
kill. 

Non-residents numbered 740 in 1956 as compared to 1,400 
in 1955. Their rate of success dropped only slightly from 43 
percent to 40 percent but the total kill dropped from 615 in 1955 
to 296 in 1956. 

The total kill estimated at 1*801 deer, decreased from 
the 1955 kill of 2,030 by an amount nearly equal to the decrease 
in the non-resident kill. 

Areas #*s 2, 3 and 4 were again the most popular and the 
most lucrative. Special attention was again given to the kill on 
St. Joseph Island and another sharp drop in the total kill for that 
part of the district has been noted. A special survey of the herd 
and range conditions on St. Joseph Island is now underway and a 
supplementary report of our findings will be issued shortly. 

An attempt is being made to prepare a special report 
providing historical data for deer in the district. This report 
will also include the more complete data of recent years and it is 
hoped that information will emerge to show us how our present deer 
herd compares to that of earlier years. 



- 43 - 
APPENDIX A 

DEER HUNTING SURVEY 
ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS & FORESTS 

We are conducting a survey among Ontario hunters regarding hunting 
practices and deer appearances and kills during the 1956 season. 
Your co-operation in answering the following questions will help 
improve hunting conditions in future years, and the three minutes 
you spend answering this questionnaire will be greatly appreciated, 
To show our apprecation, we are enclosing a carborundum stone that 
you will find useful on your next hunting or fishing trip. 

Yours sincerely, 

District Forester. 



1. Approximately how many days did you spend hunting deer 

during the 1956 season? days 



2, In what township or general area did you hunt? ...o... 

3. (a) Approximately how many deer did you see during 

your hunting trip? 



oo*oo««* 



• oo«oe«ocooooo*»ooooo 



(b) How many moose did you see? 

4o Did you bring home a deer this season? Yes ( ) No ( ) 

If Yes, what was it? Buck ( ) Doe ( ) Fawn ( ) 

5. (a) Did you hunt with dogs? Yes ( ) No ( ) 

(b) Are you in favour of or opposed to the use of 

dogs in deer hunting? ..... In favour { ) Opposed ( ) 



You may sign here if you wish 



000*0O«0O««0OOOO9*OO0«O9« 



Thank you sincerely for your help with this survey. All 
information will be treated confidentially. 

Please fold and seal this self-addressed (return postage 
guaranteed) form and drop it in the mail box today. 



APPENDIX B O WHEN REPLYING KINDLY QUOT 

^^ THIS FILE NUMBER 




ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, 
January 21, 1957. 



Dear Sirs 

Recently we forwarded you a deer hunting 
survey questionnaire, which you have not returned to 
date. 

We would appreciate your cooperation in 
returning this questionnaire, which will help us in 
our deer management program. 

If your questionnaire is already in the mail, 
please accept our thanks and disregard this reminder. 



Yours very truly, 



a. J. Herridge, 
CFC/f District Forester. 



„, t?Q m WHEN REPLYING KINDLY OUO'I 

APPENDIX C THIS FILE NUMBER 




ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, 
January 31, 1957. 



Dear Sir; 

On December 13, 1956, we forwarded you a deer hunting 
survey questionnaire which you have not returned to date. We 
also forwarded you a reminder on January 21, 1957. Would you 
please fill in the following information and return it to this 
office as soon as nossible? 

4. 

1. Approximately how many days did you spend hunting 

deer during the 1956 season? days 



2. In what township or general area did you hunt? 



3. (a) Approximately how many deer did you see during 
your hunting trip? ...«,. , 



(b) How many moose did you see? 

4. Did you bring home a deer this season? Yes ( ) No ( ) 
If yes, what was it? Buck ( ) Doe ( ) Fawn ( ) 

5. (a) Did you hunt with dogs? ............ Yes ( ) No ( ) 

(b) Are you in favour of or opposed to the use of dogs 

in deer hunting? In favour ( ) Opposed ( ) 

Your cooperation in returning this questionnaire will 
help us in our deer management program. If your questionnaire 
is already in the mail, please accept our thanks and disregard 
this letter. 

Yours very truly, 



MTW/f A. J. Herridge 

District Forester. 



- 51 - 



APPENDIX D 



Sault Ste. 



SAULT STE. MARIE 
DISTRICT 




Plan Showing - 

Areas for breakdown of deer 
hunter survey data. 

VII - Area for all Non-District 
Data. 







3D 



20 



40 



- 52 - 

DEER SEASON - KEMPTVILLE DISTRICT - 1956 

by 
J. B. Dawson 



Deer kill data are difficult to obtain in Kemptville 
District since an extensive road system makes the use of checking 
stations impractical. 

Three methods of data collection were used during the 1956 
deer season. These were as followss 

(i) Two survey teams, each composed of two men, collected information 
during the course of the hunt; one team spent one week, the 
other two weeks in the field. 

(ii) A checking station was set up on the Lanark road, near Perth, 
on November 17th and lBth. 

(iii) An appeal for deer heads or jaws for aging purposes was sent 
to District Licence Issuers for distribution to District 
hunters. 1500 mimeographed forms and a similar number of 
shipping tags were sent to approximately 90 issuers. The 
value of deer management was outlined and hunters were 
requested to ship the head or lower jaw of their deer, express 
collect, to the Kemptville District office. 

Of the above three methods of data collection, the survey 
teams were the most effective. 311 Kemptville District deer were 
checked; 200 of these were checked by one team, 56 by the other. 

The Lanark road station provided information on only 15 
Kemptville deer, although 92 Tweed District deer were aged during 
the two-day check. 

The appeal for aging material made through the licence 
issuers was disappointing, since only 55 jaws or heads were received 
at District Office. Co-operating hunters represented only 3.2% of 
the total number of appeals. It is believed however, that approxi- 
mately one third of the forms were not distributed to hunters. If 
this was so, and if hunter success is considered to be about 30%, 
then the 55 returns represent a return of nearly 20% of those suc- 
cessful hunters receiving forms and tags. Some of the deer aged in 
the field were potential returns; this, of course, influenced the 
amount of aging material received at District Office. 

Hunter Success 

Although reliable figures are limited, hunter success 
appeared to be good in Kemptville District. 

The method of data collection influenced hunter success 
rates. Field crews located many deer for aging purposes by ques- 
tioning farmers and local storekeepers. Thus, hunter success 
information was biased by the fact that most of the parties inter- 
viewed had already bagged one or more deer. 



- 53 - 



Data collected in the above manner is as follows: 



No. of , 
Hunters 3 

170 



Deer Shot 

m 



Percent of 
Success 

51.7 



Man- days 
of Hunting 

1051 



Man- days 
per deer 

11.9 



More reliable hunter success figures were obtained on 
opening day. 181 hunters who had bagged 20 deer, were checked in 
Marlborough Township of Carleton Count, on November 12th. This 
indicated a hunter success rate of 11.6% and a figure of 9.0 man- 
days per deer bagged. The hunter success figure is low since hunters 
were questioned throughout the day and some, no doubt, shot their 
deer after they had been checked. 

For several reasons, no attempt was made to distinguish 
between organized and casual hunters. Casual hunters predominate 
in this District, and those that do hunt in an organized fashion 
are usually farmers. 

High hunter densities in many areas no doubt tended to 
equalize organized and casual hunter success rates. Many hunters 
shot their deer in front of other men ? s dogs and organized drives, 
and numerous deer, wounded by organized groups, were claimed and 
tagged by casual hunters. 



includes organized, local and casual hunters. 



H 30 



- 54 - 
Deer Age-Class Distribution Summary 



District Kemptville 



Total Deer Checked: 311 

Adult Bucks 125 

Adult Does 87 

Buck Fawns 49 

Doe Fawns 41 

Unsexed 8 



311 
25 



Adults unaged 



195 6 



Percentage of Deer Checked: 

Adult Bucks 40.51$ 

Adult Does 27.97$ 

Total Fawns 31.52$ 

100.00$ 



Percentages of Adult Deer in Each Age Class 



Bucks 



Does 



Sexes Combined 



Age 


No. of 
Deer 

43 


Percent of 
Total 


U 


36.4 


2i 


19 


16,1 


34 


14 


11.9 


4s 


17 


14.4 


54 


16 


13.5 


64 


5 


4.3 


7i 


2 


1.7 


34 


- 


0.0 


94 


2 


1.7 


104 


- 


0.0 


TOTALS 


118 


100.0 


UNAGED 


8 




GRAND 
TOTAL 


126 






Average age of 
Adult Bucks 3.32 



Deer 

23 

9 

9 

11 

11 

2 

3 
2 



70 
17 

87 



Average age of 
Adult Does 3.58 



Percent of 
Total 


No. of 
Deer 

66 


Percent of 
Total 


32.9 


35.1 


12. a 


28 


14.9 


12.8 


23 


12.2 


15.7 


28 


14.9 


15.7 


27 


14.4 


2.9 


7 


3.7 


4.3 


5 


2.6 


2.9 


2 


1.1 


0.0 


2 


1.1 


0.0 


- 


0.0 


100.0 


188 


100.0 




25 


11.7 



213 



Average age of 
all adults 3.42 



- 55 - 



Age-Class Distribution 



Age-class distribution figures, for 1&£ adult deer aged 
in Kemptville District, indicate 

(i) that 37 •&% of all adult deer aged were kh. years of age or 
older. 

(ii) that 22.9% of all adult deer aged were 5i years of age or 
older. 

The 1954 and 1955 Ontario Deer Season summaries show that 
only 16.35% of adult deer aged were 42 years or older, and only 
£.4% were 5a years or older. (Ave. of nine Districts 1954, 10 
Districts 1955) . 

The number of 2\ and 3i year olds in the Kemptville sample 
is low and the reasons for this are not well known. It has been 
suggested that the deep snows of late winter in 1955 may have 
influenced the survival rate of the 1954 fawn crop and thus lowered 
the number of 2§ year old deer in the sample. If this was true, 
an appreciable mortality must have occurred, which is questionable. 

Certain sampling errors may have occurred; these are, 
however, not obvious. 

If a representative sample of the deer herd was obtained 
the abundance of older deer would seem to indicate that the herd 
has not been over-harvested during recent years. 



- 56 - 

H 32 - A 

Deer Season Weather Report 
Station General Conditions District Kemptville 

Snow Conditions Ground Conditions 



% of Ground Soft or Average Frozen 
1956 Covered Crusted Depth or Soft Wet or Dry 

Soft Dry 

lightly fro- Dry 

zen in A.M. 

soft J" 



Novo 


12 


nil 


Nov. 


13 


nil 


Nov. 


14 


100% in a.m. 
nil in p.m. 


Nov. 


15 


nil 


Nov, 


16 


nil 


Nov. 


17 


nil 


Nov. 


12 




Nov. 


19 


nil 


Nov. 


20 


nil 


Nov. 


21 


nil 


Nov. 


22 


nil 


Nov. 


23 


nil 


Nov. 


24 


nil 



soft 


Wet-rain all 
day 


soft 


Wet-rain all 
day 


soft 


Wet-rain in 
a.m. - high 
winds in p.m 



soft wet 



soft 


dry 


soft 


dry 


soft 


wet-rain all 




day 


frozen 


wet 


frozen 


wet 


frozen 


wet 



- 57 - 

Temporal Distribution of the Deer Kill - November 12th-17th . 

Since hunters were interviewed continuously during the 
hunt, temporal distribution figures for the deer kill are limited. 

One survey party worked sections of Lanark County only 
during the second week of the hunt. The temporal distribution of 
114 deer killed in these areas during the previous week was as 
follows? 

Date No. of Deer Killed Percent of Total 



November 12 


37 


32.4 


November 13 


25 


21.9 


November 14 


17 


14. 8 


November 15 


14 


12.4 


November 16 


8 


7.0 


November 17 


13 


11.5 



TOTALS 114 100.0 

This sample indicates a gradual decrease in hunter success 
following that of November 12th, The kill was lowest on November 
16th, a day of rain and high winds. 

Milk Teeth 

Condition of the milk teeth was noted on 35 deer lj years 
of age. Of these 17 had shed and 18 had not shed their milk teeth. 

Lactation in Does 

The state of lactation was noted in only 37 of the 87 does 
checked, since many deer had been cut up when the survey teams 
arrived. 

Lactation, by age-classes, was as follows? 

Age Class Milking Dry 

If 3 6 

2| 5 2 

3$ 6 

4i 8 

P 4 l 

1\ 1 1 

TOTALS 27 10 



- 5S - 



Distribution of Deer Checked 



Map #1 shows the number of deer checked in each of the 
Townships open for hunting during the 1956 season. 

The number of deer checked is not correlated with the 
actual number of deer killed per Township in any way, since the 
survey crews, of necessity, confined their activities to certain 
areas. 



MAP #1 - Deer Checked by Townships, Kemptville District, 
November,, 1956. 




- 59 - 

1956 Deer Data - Marlborough Township*, Kemptville Distric t 

This Township, in Carleton County, has an assessed acreage 
of 54*609**. (The amount of Crown Land is negligible). Of this 35 
square miles, only 29% is cultivated, 32% is abandoned farm land, 
much of which is woodlot and swamp, and the remainder, 39%> is wood- 
lot or unimproved land. 

Much of the Township is excellent deer habitat, and since 
the area is located about 15 miles from the city of Ottawa, annual 
hunting pressure is high. 

Several factors contributed to an even heavier concentra- 
tion of hunters than usual in Marlborough Township in 1956. For 
the first time in several years, the five eastern Counties of 
Kemptville District were closed to deer hunting. This, coupled with 
the fact that adjacent areas to the south and east of the Township 
opened two days later, resulted in a very high hunter density, 
especially during the first two days of the hunt. 

In an attempt to check as many deer kills as possible 
during the period of highest hunting pressure, a section of the 
Township covering approximately 4$ square miles was cruised exten- 
sively by automobile on November 12th and 13th. 

On November 12th, 1$1 hunters, with a total kill of 20 deer, 
were checked - a hunter success of 11.6%. 

On November 13th, about the same number of hunters bagged 
16 deer. After the 13th, as the season opened to the south and east, 
hunting pressure fell considerably and the intensive check was 
abandoned. 

In two days, 36 deer kills were checked on the 4$ square 
miles. It is estimated that about 70% of all deer killed were 
checked during the two days^ if this assumption is correct, then 
about 50 deer, (slightly over one deer per square mile) were killed 
on the first two days. 

This rate of kill was certainly not maintained during the 
last three days of the season due to a greatly reduced hunting 
pressure. A kill of slightly over two deer per square mile is 
estimated for the entire six-day season. If this figure is applied 
to the Township as a whole, then a kill of &5 x 2 or 170 deer occurred. 
This figure is probably high, since the 4# square miles checked com- 
prise a large percentage of the Township's best deer range. 



x see map #2. 

xx Canada Bureau of Statistics, 1951 Census. 



- 60 - 

Sixty-nine deer from Marlborough Township were aged. The 
results are contained in the deer age-class distribution summary on 
page 61. 

This summary indicates that deer in the older age-classes 
constituted the bulk of the sample. Several causes of this age- 
class distribution are suggesteds 

(i) Since the sample is small, a random sample of the kill was 
probably not accomplished. 

(ii) The sample may indicate a trend towards older age classes in 
the population. If this is so, it may be that although high 
densities of hunters occur, hunting is done in a very inef- 
ficient manner. Hunting pressure was higher this season than 
in previous years. It is quite possible that the harvest of 
recent years has not affected the Township's deer herd appre- 
ciably. 

No definite conclusions can be made from one sampling of 
the population and special efforts will be made to collect data from 
Marlborough Township in the future. 



- 61 - 



H 30 



De er Age-Clas s Dis tri b ution Summary 
Marlborough Township, Kempt ville District 



1956 



Total Deer Checked; 69 

Adult Bucks . • . • o o . 26 

Adult Does 21 

Buck Fawns , . 11 

Doe Fawns . . , 11 

Unaged & Unsexed . . 



Percentage of Deer Checked l 

AQ.U-J-C JJU.CK-0 o*9*o6e««eoo*e« J) f a ( 

Adult Does 30.4 

l ot a J. r awns ... ...... ...... jit 7 



Total 



9e«*O»O90O»e0*60O04«« 



100,0 



Percentages of Adult Deer In Each Age Class 



iss. 



li 
24 

3i 

4s~ 

5i 

6i 
71 
Si 
94 

10j 

TOTALS 



Bucks 



No. of Percent 
Deer of Total 



5 
3 

9 
7 
1 



19.2 
11.5 

mm 

34.7 

26. g 

4.0 



4.0 



Does 



Noo of Percent 
Deer of Total 



6 

3 
2 

3 
5 

1 
1 



23. 5 

14.3 

9.4 

14.3 

23.7 

4.9 

4.9 



Sexes Combined 

No. of Percent 
Deer of Total 



11 
6 
2 
12 
12 
2 
1 



23.4 

12.8 

4.3 

25.5 

25.5 

4.3 

2.1 

2.1 



26 



100.0 



21 



100.0 



47 



100.0 



Average age - Bucks 4.23 
Does 3.74 
All Adults 4.12 



- 62 - 

MAP #2 - Location of Marlborough Township, 
Kemptville District 




- 63 - 
KENORA DISTRICT WINTER DEER MORTALITY SURVEY, 1957 

by 

V. Macins 



Areas Checked For Deer Winter Kill in the Spring of 1957 

(1) May 6, 1957 check on the Long Bay area North of Sioux Narrows 
TLake of the Woods) by Carl Liddle (Conservation Officer) and 
Val Macins. Area covered? three miles long, one chain wide 
(3/#0 mi. sq. ) . 

In this area the remains of two deer were found. The lower of 
one 3-4 year old deer was collected. Part of skull, chips 
of bone and hair also found in the same vicinity. 

At the other location (30 chains S. E. of the first) only chips 
of bone, contents of the stomach and large amounts of hair 
found. No sex could be determined and no femur was collected 
in either case. Evidence points to predator kill. Sufficient 
browse available throughout the area covered, but in places 
heavy browsing on Juneberry, Mountain Maple, White Birch, Hazel 
and Aspen was noted. 

(2) M ay 11, 1957 the area north of Granite Lake (up to Deception 
Lake) was checked. 

Area covered? 5 miles long, one chain wide (l/l6 mi. square). 

In this area no dead deer were found. Browsing only moderate. 
Browse most utilized - Dogwood, Mountain Maple, Juneberry and 
Fly Honeysuckle. Browsing on Hazel very light, no signs of 
heavy concentrations of deer in this area. 

On May 13th. and 14th. areas east and west of Cygnet Lake were 
checked. Both areas covered were of a similar size five miles 
x one chain wide (l/l6 mi. square). 

No deer that died the previous winter were found. Remains of 
few from the winter of 1955/56 were noted. 

(3) In the area east of Cygnet Lake moderate browsing on Hazel, 
Juneberry, Birch, Aspen and Balsam Fir. The effects of the 
heavy browsing in the winter of 1955/56 were noticeable. In 
this area more present signs of moose than deer were noted. 

(4) The area west of Cygnet Lake is moderately to heavily browsed 
utilizing mainly the same species of browse. In this area deer 
populations seem to be much more abundant than on the east 
shores of the lake (estimated from fresh pellet groups). 

The total area covered in all four checks on the spring of 
1957 was .23 square miles. 



- 64 - 



1956 DEER HUNT REPORT - PEMBROKE FOREST DISTRICT 

by 
K. K. Irizawa 



Information on the 1956 deer hunting was collected at the 
highway checking stations, by using hunt camp survey forms and 
through field checks of camps and hunters by Department personnel. 
This report presents a summary of our findings. In most cases 
comparisons will be made with similar data from previous years so 
that you may follow the trends which occur in deer populations and 
hunting in general. 

This year, 179 hunt camp report forms were sent or handed 
out to the parties compared with 103 in 1955 and 107 in 1954. Prior 
to January 7 9 1956, when a reminder was sent out, $7 returns were 
made. Following the reminder another 69 returns were received for 
a total of 156 or 87% returns. This compares very well with 1955 
when $5% made returns and with 1954 when &2%> made returns. At this 
rate by 1965 we should be getting close to 100% returns. 

Of the 179 hunt camps contacted 101 were operating with 
a land-use permit on crown land. The remainder were camp parties 
hunting from camps on patented land or from summer cottages and 
farm-houses. Of the final returns totalling 156, 14 indicated their 
camps were not in use for a variety of reasons leaving 142 whose 
information is used in this report. 

Let us look now at the overall summary of success and 
effort for the hunt camps and of checking station data. 



For Hunt Camps 



Number of deer reported 
Total number of hunters 
Total days of hunting 
Hunter success 
Hunter - days per deer 



1956 

604 
1131 
7010 

53.4% 
11.6 



1955 



374 

646 
4499 
57.95 
12.0 



12a 

376 

607 
3977 
61.95 
10.6 



In addition to the 604 deer reported above six moose were 
reported killed. If these moose are added to the deer the "new" 
success and effort figures become 53.9% and 11.5 hunter-days, 
respectively. Some people have suggested that one moose is worth 
five deer because the average weight of moose and the cost of the 
special "moose licence" are both approximately five times as much 
as that for deer. Following this reasoning further we added 30 
(6 x 5) to 604 and got a "revised" hunter success of 56.1% and effort 
of 11.1 hunter-days. 



- 65 - 



At The Checking Stations 

Number of deer checked 
Total number of hunters 
Total days of hunting 
Hunter success 
Hunter - days per deer 



1956 

381 

1137 
6343 



1955 



33.5% 
16.6 



394 

1004 

5720 
39.2$ 
14.5 



19^4 

295 

844 
4434 
35. 0< 
15.0 



Although the success dropped somewhat and the time 
required to kill a deer increased slightly there is no need to panic 
because this was the general picture in this part of the Province 
last fall. The averages for this district still remain better than 
those of similar districts adjacent to us. 

The age-sex breakdown for hunt camp and checking station 
deer are shown next as percentages of the total. 



F or Hunt Camps 

Adult bucks 
Adult does 
Total fawns 

At The Checking Stations 

Adult bucks 
Adult does 
Total fawns 



1956 



1955 



45.9$ 

28.8% 
25.3% 




47.6% 
27.5% 
24.9% 




1956 


1955 




46.4% 
27.6% 
26.0% 


42.1% 
31.5% 
26.4% 



1954 

51.6% 
30.6% 
17.8% 

1954 

40.7% 
31.5% 
27.8% 



A total of 573 deer were aged at the checking stations 
and in the field. Of these 134 were classed only as "unaged adults" 
so that 439 actually aged animals of both sexes are represented in 
the table below. 



Age 
No. 



i ( fawn ) 
130 



U 

122 



71 



31 
52 



34 



54 

15 



u 2 

8 



1\ 
5 



7J + 
2 



The average ages of adult deer shown below are based on 
checking station data only. 



1956 



Adult Bucks 
Adult Does 
All Adults 



2.56 yrs. 
3.14 yrs. 
2.78 yrs. 



1955 



2.58 yrs. 
3.22 yrs, 
2.87 yrs. 



1954 



2.76 yrs. 
2.99 yrs. 
2.84 yrs. 



Complete weight figures are not available this year be- 
cause very few deer were weighed at the checking stations. We 
recall one buck at 218 lbs. but the rest of the "big bucks" were 
just over or under 200 lbs. 

Hunters checked at the checking stations this year were 
classed as "casual" or "organized" again. Calculations show that 
organized camp hunters are more than twice as successful as casual 



- 66 - 



hunters and bag their deer in almost half the time, 

1956 - Casual hunters - 17.1% success, 27.6 hunter-days 

Organized hunters - 39.4% success, 15.1 hunter-days 

1955 - Casual hunters - 18.6% success, 26.0 hunter-days 

Organized hunters - 45.3% success, 14.1 hunter-days 

Based on success and effort figures for hunt camp and 
checking station data combined, the following general areas of the 
Pembroke Forest District were rated on a one, two, three - basis 
for your best chances of getting a deer in the least time. 



Area 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 
VI 



Deux Rivieres - Stonecliffe - Rolphton 
Deep River - Chalk River - Petawawa 
Alice - Westmeath - Lake Dore 
Indian - Round Lake - Bonnechere 
Paugh Lake - Barry v s Bay - Aylen Lake 
Madawaska - Hay Lake - Whitney 



1956 

4 
1 
6 
2 
3 
4 



1955 

2 
1 
6 
5 
3 
4 



1£5A 

2 

1 
6 
5 
4 
3 



Area II has established itself as the best deer unit in 
the district every year. This year Area IV replaced Area I as the 
second best unit. There were no clear-cut differences between 
positions 2, 3, 4 and 5, in fact Area I and Area VI ended up in a 
virtual tie. 

"To Use Dogs or Not To Use Dogs" 

Dogs remain as one of the controversial topics among deer 
hunters. We are not proposing any solutions but we present the 
following information extracted from the 142 hunt camp returns made 
as being of possible interest to you. 

Four parties did not state whether they used dogs or not, 
(we presume they didn ? t). Sixty-eight parties did not use dogs at 
all and seventy parties reported using dogs. Of the latter, 16 
parties had one dog each, 17 parties used two dogs each, 13 parties 
used three dogs each, 20 parties used four dogs each and four 
parties had five or more dogs in camp. The average number of dogs 
used per dog-using party was 2,8 or nearly three dogs per party. 

The average number of hunters per party reported was eight 
but in actuality there was an average of 6,6 hunters per party out 
each day. This difference, we believe, is due to the practice of 
some camps designating one licencee as "cook-for-the-day", while 
other camps have some hunters with that familiar "morning-sickness", 
which renders them hors de combat for the day ? s hunt. 

"You ? ll Take the High Road and I y ll Take the Low Road" 

Do you recall that you were asked at the checking stations 
whether you went to your camps entirely by land or whether any 
water travel was involved. We have found out that for this district 
one party out of 13 have some water travel before they can reach 
their camp. This information is necessary if the season were to be 
extended or perhaps set back later in the month. 



- 67 - 



Reg Special Moose-Deer Licences 



A 
addition 14 
in this dist 
amounted to 
13 cows and 
fawns) for a 
hunters (4$. 
we conducted 
sets of repr 

Bear Facts 



total of 127 licences 
hunters who had bought 
rict for a grand total 
115 or Sl% and the rep 
nine calves) and 19 de 

hunter success of 51 
7%) . The most disappo 

was that only 10 sets 
oductive tracts from c 



were sold in this district. In 
their licences elsewhere hunted 
of 141 "moose hunters". Returns 
orted kill was 40 moose (1$ bulls 
er (10 bucks, five does and five 
3%. There were 56 unsuccessful 
inting feature of the moose survey 
of lower jaws (out of 40) and two 
ow moose (out of 13) were turned in, 



Hunt camp parties numbering 19 reported killing 31 bears of 
which six were male adults, nine female adults, 11 male cubs and five 
were female cubs. 

The Winter of 1956-57 and Deer 

Some preliminary field work was started this winter in a 
census of our deer herd. In late January and early February we 
covered the district by aircraft for the aerial survey of deer and 
moose populations and distributions. Later a follow-up was done on 
the ground using the pellet-group census technique. This involves 
counting the number of deer dropping groups that can be found on 
plots as we walk along measured strips in the bush. From this we can 
compute the number of deer in a chosen area if we know the period of 
time, say the number of days after a heavy snowfall. 

As far as snow conditions are concerned we had a very mild 
winter. The highest standing snow depth reported was 21 inches in the 
Stonecliffe area in mid-February. Other snow stations run by the 
Department in this district reported an average of 15 inches as the 
deepest snows in mid-January. These low standing depths of snow and 
the absence of any serious crust conditions certainly would not impede 
deer in their movements. 

With the passage of time we will be concentrating more of 
our efforts on the field work aspects of deer investigation. The 
facts we dig up, we hope, will aid us in deer management and thus 
ensure "good deer hunting" for you every fall. 

How to Age Deer 

Many hunters whom we have interviewed in the field, at the 
checking stations or at their camps have expressed an interest in the 
techniques used in determining the age of deer by the teeth of the 
lower jaws. (Editor's note - a series of diagrams were included in 
the original paper). First, you have to recognize that certain 
changes occur in deer dentition with increasing age just as in human 
beings. Until deer reach the age of 1| years (18 months) or so the 
number of teeth present and the replacement of the "milk" premolars 



- 6S - 

are the guides used in aging. Once the "milk" teeth have been replaced 
by the permanent premolars at about IS months, there is no more 
replacement taking place. From then the amount of wear as reflected 
by the relative widths of the whitish enamel to the brownish dentine 
is the key used in age-reading. It is rather difficult to state simply 
the innumerable subtle changes that occur in wear pattern from 2\ years 
(30 months) on, but in general principle if the teeth are sharp and 
shows lots of white, the animal is younger than that whose teeth are 
flattened from grinding and hence show lots of brown. 

Do You Know 

- That within the U. S. and Canada white-tailed deer inhabit 
1,500,000 square miles of range and number about 6,500,000 animals? 

- That doe fawns may breed their first year? Where deer 
were getting all they wanted to eat as high as 35% of the fawns born 
in the spring were breeding in the late fall. 

- That the rate of reproduction in a deer herd is affected 
by food conditions? Does living in a range where food conditions were 
good were producing nearly twice as many fawns as were does living 
where food conditions were poor. 

- That availability of food rather than disease, poachers, 
parasites or predatory animals is the factor limiting the size of our 
deer herd? 

- That antler size and formation is a reflection of nutri- 
tion and condition of bucks and not of age? We have checked yearling 
bucks with forked horns and older bucks with only "spike" horns. 

About Hunter Safety 

Do you know why many of us are scared of becoming deer hunter 
casualties? We are scared because we do not know why we have such 
accidents and it is only human to be frightened of something that is 
not understood. 

One good tip for the hunter - wear RED - scarlet - not the 
black and red plaid. The latter, especially when faded, looks black 
and bear-like when seen at a distance. Better still, wear some of 
that fire orange or neon red material that is available now. It is 
almost four times brighter than scarlet in bright light and the 
difference increases as the light fades. 

Gun accidents, particularly deer hunting accidents, seem to 
be a little more spectacular than most forms of sudden death. We 
become calloused to the ordinary, such as vehicle accidents or drown- 
ings, which we read about every day. 

The greatest single cause of deer hunting gun accidents is 
the hunter himself or a member of his own party - an accidental dis- 
charge at point-blank range, cleaning or unloading rifle, horseplay 
or stumbling and falling. All of us have read the 10 Commandments of 



- 69 - 

Firearm Safety, maybe so often that they sound trite. Read them 
again I 

However, if all this sounds too gloomy and you need reas- 
suring see you insurance man. He probably will tell you that you are 
a lot safer watching a run way on a frosty morning than you are 
painting your house, driving to the movies or even having a nice quiet 
game of golf I 

(adapted from Mich. Cons.) 
Safe Hunting In 1957 



copy t 70 - 

Pembroke, Ontario, April 9th, 1957. 

Dear Sir; 

We are sending you a copy of the 1956 deer hunting report 
for the Pembroke Forest District. You will notice that special 
emphasis has been placed in putting out a more informative report 
so that you will have a better understanding of the problems we 
encounter in deer management. We hope that after you have read the 
report you will pass it along to the rest of your hunt camp members. 

Along with sending you this report we would like to voice 
our appreciation for the splendid cooperation shown by most hunt 
camp parties. It goes without saying that without your encouraging 
support it would not have been possible to complete this report. 

When the 1957 deer season rolls around we shall be appealing 
to you again for information on the hunt. We trust that at that 
time we will get the same high degree of cooperation and help which 
you have given us in the past. 

Yours very truly, 



D. N. Omand, 
K.K. Irizawa/SS District Forester. 



- 71 - 



THE 1956 DEER SEASON IN PEMBROKE DISTRICT 

by 
K. K. Irizawa 



The 1956 deer season in the Pembroke District was from 
November 12th to 24th inclusive, excepting Sunday, the 18th. As in 
past years, information on the hunt was collected at the highway 
checking stations, through hunt camp report forms and on field checks 
of hunters and camps. 

I Checking Stations 

About 49% of the data shown in this section was obtained 
at the Arnprior station The rest came from stations in adjoining 
districts in the following approximate proportions l Burleigh Falls 
- 29%j Gravenhurst - lh.%% and Millbridge-Kaladar - 8%. One card from 
the Union Creek Station (Lindsay) was grouped with Burleigh Falls 
and one from North Bay was grouped with Gravenhurst. In the summaries 
following, the data from Millbridge and Kaladar, both in the Tweed 
District, are combined and listed under Millbridge. 

The composite summary of hunter success and effort-per-deer 
for this district is shown below. 

Number of deer checked - 381 

Number of hunters checked - 1,137 

Total days of hunting - 6,343 

Hunter success percentage - 33.5 

Hunter-days per deer - 16. 6 

A breakdown of these data by checking stations is presented 
below. The percentage of the total of deer, hunters and days are 
listed in parentheses. 



Station 

Arnprior 
Burleigh 
Gravenhurst 
Millbridge 

TOTALS 



Deer 



Hunters 



Days 



Success Effort 



131 

106 
70 
24 

381 



(47.5) 
(27.8) 
(18, 
( 6, 



4) 
3) 



554 
343 
133 
107 

1137 



(48.7) 
(30.2) 

(11.7) 
( 9.4) 



3260 

1764 

722 

597 

6343 



(51.4) 
(27.8) 

(11.4) 
( 9.4) 



32.7 
30.9 
52.6 

22.4 
33.5 



18.0 
16.6 
10.3 
24.9 

16.6 



Each station where deer and hunters from this district are 
checked is unique inasmuch as the origin and destination of the 
hunters is concerned. At Arnprior hunters from Ottawa and the lower 
Ottawa valley and St. Lawrence valley towns are checked. They have 
hunted chiefly in our deer management units I, II and IV. (For a 
description of these units the reader is directed to pp. 2-3 of the 
August 1955 Fish and Wildlife Management Report. Alice Township 
formerly in unit IV has been placed in unit III this year.) At 



- 72 - 

Gravenhurst, hunters headed for the Toronto - Southwestern Ontario 
areas have hunted in Units I, V and VI. At Burleigh Falls, hunters 
bound for the Toronto - Western Lake Ontario region have hunted in 
units IV, and V and VI. At Millbridge and Kaladar the hunters 
checked are from the Eastern Lake Ontario - Bay of Quinte and lower 
Trent valley towns and their hunting was confined mainly to units 
IV, V and VI. 

In addition to hunter-success and effort data, data on 
age and sex of deer, premolar condition of yearling animals and 
lactation in adult does were collected at the stations. Owing to the 
difficulty in attempting to age frozen animals on the second week-end, 
the numbers of unaged adults is quite high when compared with those of 
1954 or 1955. 



Age-Class Distribution 
Total Deer Checked 



Percentage of Deer Checked 



Adult bucks 




177 






Adult bucks - 


46 . k% 


Adult does 


- 


105 






Adult does 


- 


21 M 


Total fawns 


- 


99 






Total fawns 


26.0% 


Percentages 


of 


Adult 


Deer in Each 


Age-Class 


C 








Bucks 


Dc 


ies 


Combined 


Ages 


Number Percent 
53 46.5 


Number 
23 


Percent Numbe 
33.3 76 


>r Percent 


u 


41.5 


3 

4l 

% 




25 


21,9 


16 


23.2 


41 


22.4 




19 


16.7 


11 


15o9 


30 


16.4 




11 


9o6 


11 


15.9 


22 


12.0 




5 


4.4 


3 


4» 4 


8 


4.4 




1 


0.9 


2 


2.9 


3 


1.6 




- 


- 


1 


1.5 


1 


0.5 


n + 




■» 


- 


2 


2.9 


2 


1.1 


TOTAL 




114 


100.0 


69 


100 .0 


183 


100.0 


UNAGED 




63 


35.6 


36 


34.3 


99 


35.3 


GRAND TOTAL 




177 


100 ,0 


105 


100.0 


282 


100.0 




Average 


age of adult 


bucks 


- 2.56 years 








A\ 


r erage 


age of adult 


does 


- 3.14 years 








Average 


age of all adults 


- 2.78 years 







This year, hunters interviewed at the stations were classed 
as either "Organized" or "Casual". The former includes organized 
camp hunters and guided hunters, the latter consists of hunters 
who hunt on varying roadsides and locales from day to day. 



- 73 - 



Success and Effort by Units and Categ o ries 



Unit 


Category 


Deer 


Hunters 


Days 


Success 


Effort 


I 


Organized 
Casual 


70 
13 




178 
65 


1172 
342 


43.7% 
20.0% 


16.7 
26.3 


II 


Organized 
Casual 


77 
11 




157 
45 


970 
198 


49.0% 

24 o I+/O 


12.6 
18.0 


III 


Organized 
Casual 


5 
2 




23 

20 


108 
72 


21.7% 
10.0% 


21.6 
36.0 


IV 


Organized 
Casual 


36 
7 




80 
39 


391 
127 


45.0% 
17.9% 


10.9 
18.1 


V 


Organized 
Casual 


55 
13 




157 
77 


923 
358 


35.0% 
16.9% 


16.8 
27.5 


VI 


Organized 
Casual 


87 
5 




243 
53 


1418 
264 


35.8% 
9.4% 


16.3 
52.8 


Summary 


by Categories 














Organized 
Casual 


330 
51 




838 
299 


4982 
1361 


39.4% 
17.1% 


15.1 
26.7 


Percentages of Deer, Hunt 


-er and Days 


by Category 


s P 




Category Percent Deer 


Percent Hunter 


ercent Days 


Organiz 
Casual 


ed 


86.6 
13.4 






73.7 
26.3 




78.5 
21.5 


Summary 


by Units 














Unit 


Total 
Deer 


Total 
Hunters 


Total 
Days 


Hunter 
Success 


Hunter 
Effort 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 


83 

SS 
7 
43 
68 
92 




243 

202 

43 
119 
234 
296 




1514 
1168 
180 
518 
1281 
1682 


34.2% 
43.6% 
16.3% 
36.1% 
29.1% 
31.1% 


18.2 
13.3 
25.7 
12.0 
18.8 
18.3 



TOTAL 



381 



1137 



6343 



33.5% 



16.6 



- 74 - 



Condition of Premo la rs in Yearli ngs 

Special attention was paid to the condition of premolar 
replacement in lg year old animals. Those with the milk teeth shed 
completely or in the process of shedding with perhaps P3 and P4 
shed and P2 still intact were classed as shed. Those with all the 
milk teeth intact were classed as unshed. In the sample 34 animals 
had milk teeth shed, 34 had the teeth unshed and nine animals were 
unchecked for a total of 77 yearling animals. 

Condit i on of Lac tation in Adult Does 

Udders on adult does were slit and examined to see if the 
does were milking (wet) or dry. This gives an indication of the 
reproduction in the deer herd. On the second weekend particularly, 
some difficulty was encountered in checking for lactation owing 
to the frozen condition of the animals. A total of 105 does were 
examined in the following proportions. 



Milking (wet) - 36= 

L and - Water Route t o Ca mps 



Dry - 32; 



Unchecked - 37. 



Every party interviewed was asked whether they travelled 
by land only or by water as well to get to their camps. This would 
have a bearing on the open season especially if the season was 
extended for a week or two or if it was set back into December. 
The summary is as follows. 



No. of Parties 
No. of Hunters 



By__Land 

431 
1024 



By Water 

35 
113 



Average No. hunters per land party - 2.3$ 
Average No. hunters per water party - 3.23 

Ratio - waters land parti.s - 1.0s 12.3 
Ratio - waters land hunters - 1.0s 9.1 

Weather Record 



Weather reports from Cormac, Round Lake, Whitney, Stone- 
cliffe and Pembroke were kept during the season. Average conditions 
throughout the district for the two weeks may be summarized by 
stating that the first week was mild, and wet, snow falling on 
Tuesday and rain on Thursday and Friday ; the second week was still 
mild and wet at the beginning but became colder towards the end 
with snow flurries on Thursday and Friday. Detailed reports on 
snow and ground conditions have been sent in to Maple. 

II Hunt Camps 

A substantial increase in hunt camps data this year 
resulted from extensive field work during the hunt and from concerted 
efforts by the staff at the Arnprior checking station to seek the 
identity of established hunt camps hitherto unknown. In all, 179 



-75— 

hunt camp report forms were sent or handed out to the parties this 
year. (cf. 1954 - 107 and 1955 - 103). Prior to January 7, 1957 
when a reminder was sent out, #7 returns were made. Following 
the reminder another 68 returns were received for a total of 155 
(86.6%). This compares favorably with 1954 - 82.2% and 1955 - 
85.4%. Of the 155 returns made, 14 indicated that their camps were 
not in use for a variety of reasons leaving 141 whose information 
is used in this section. 

Of the 179 hunt camp parties contacted 101 were operating 
with a land use permit on crown land. The remainder were either 
patented land camps or parties hunting from private summer cottages 
and farm houses. 

Summary of Success and Effort 

i\l IX In D © 3/ OX QL/Ci iGpOlwC^Cl ooo«*oeooo0«*oo»c«oaa*ooo«ooo«eoooo OU^ 

1. O ciX I1U.II1Q bl OX ilU.il LGFS «oo4oo*ooo«oo*o«*eooeoooo»«ooooo«oo 1 1 J5 1 
lOLal QciyS OX rm.Il U lll^ co*6o«oo«ooo*co*o*oooo«oo*c*o«ooo«o*o /U1U 

rllXil w Gi OUCC6SS P@]rC Gil Ocl§@ e**OO0OOOOCC*OO*O*OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO J S * ^ 

11 U.X 1 <J O X UuV b P O L ULCl Q0»0»O0«OO0O0O00OOOO0000»OO00O0OOCOOO0 11 o U 

In addition to the deer reported above six moose were 
reported killed. If these moose are added to the deer to total 
610 animals, then the success and effort may be revised to 53.9% and 
11.5 man days. If the weight differential and licence cost dif- 
ferential between moose and deer is taken into consideration it 
may be justifiable to conclude that a moose is worth five deer. 
Upon pursuing this reasoning and adding 30 moose to 604 deer the 
success and effort would be "improved" to read 56.1% and 11.1 
hunter-days respectively. 

The six moose killed consisted of two bulls, two cows 
and a male and female calf each. Two of these were killed in Airy 
Township and one each in Cameron, Wylie, Dickens, and Sabine ,Town- 
ships. 

A total of 19 parties reported killing 31 bears. These 
consisted of six adult males (19.4%/* nine adult females (29.0%), 
11 male cubs (35.5%) and five female cubs (16.1%). 

Success and Effort by Units 



Unit 


Deer 


Hunters 


Days 


Success 


Effort 


I 


113 


259 


1767 


43.6% 


15.6 


II 


194 


289 


1878 


67.1% 


9.7 


III 


5 


15 


70 


33.3% 


14.0 


IV 


115 


224 


1172 


51.3% 


10.2 


V 


94 


163 


1064 


57 7% 


11.3 


VI 


83 


181 


1059 


45.9% 


12.8 



TOTAL 604 1131 7010 53.4% 11.6 



- 76 



Age Class Distribut ion 

Total Deer Reported 

Adult bucks - 277 
adult does - 174 
Total fawns - 153 



Percentage of Deer Reported 

Adult bucks - 45.9% 
Adult does - 26.6% 
Total fawns - 25.3% 



The ages obtained of hunt camp deer will be found in 
section III, 

Temporal Distribution of Hunt Camp Deer Kills 





No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


Percent of 


Percent of 


Date 


Hunters 


Parties 


Deer 


Total Kill 


Hunter Success 


12 Nov, 


943 


133 


163 


27.0 


17.3 


13 Nov, 


900 


125 


107 


17.7 


11.9 


14 Nov. 


374 


123 


61 


13.4 


9.3 


15 Nov. 


75^ 


111 


35 


5.6 


4.6 


16 Nov. 


796 


112 


46 


7.6 


5.6 


17 Nov. 


750 


109 


49 


6.1 


6.5 


TOTAL 


5023 


713 


461 


79.6 


55.4 


19 Nov. 


392 


66 


34 


5.6 


6.7 


20 Nov. 


372 


61 


23 


3.6 


6.2 


21 Nov. 


292 


55 


13 


2,2 


• 4.5 


22 Nov. 


323 


56 


19 


3.1 


5.9 


23 Nov. 


316 


5^ 


17 


2.6 


5.3 


24 Nov. 


290 


52 


17 


2.6 


5.9 



TOTAL 



1967 



350 



123 



20.4 



36.5 



The pattern of temporal distribution of kill conforms to 
the general pattern throughout the Province. The importance that 
weather plays in determining the size of the kill is reflected in 
the data for Thursday, November 15, when rain was responsible for 
the low kill and success. By expanding on the deer kill in the 
temporal distribution table it was possible to determine the 
temporal distribution of the deer kill composition which is shown 
below. 

Temporal Distribution of Deer Kill Composition 







Bu< 


sks 




Does 




Fawns 


Date 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


12 Nov, 


61 




49.7 


39 




23.9 


43 




26.4 


13 Nov. 


49 




45.6 


34 




31.6 


24 




22.4 


14 Nov. 


41 




50.6 


20 




24-7 


20 




24.7 


15 Nov. 


16 




51.4 


7 




20.0 


10 




26.6 


16 Nov. 


20 




43.5 


15 




32.6 


11 




23.9 


17 Nov. 


16 




36.7 


15 




30.6 


16 




32.7 



TOTAL 



227 



47.2 



130 



27.0 



124 



25.6 



- 77 - 



Bucks 



Does 



Fawns 



Date 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


19 Nov. 

20 Nov. 

21 Nov. 

22 Nov. 

23 Nov. 

24 Nov. 


20 
9 
1 
9 
5 
6 


58.8 
39.1 
7.7 
47.4 
29.4 
35.3 


11 
9 
7 
3 
8 
6 


32.4 
39.1 
53.8 
15.8 
47.1 
35.3 


3 
5 
5 
7 
4 
5 


21.7 
38.5 
36.8 
23.5 
29.4 


TOTAL 


50 


40.7 


44 


35.8 


29 


23.6 


GRAND TOTAL 


277 


45.9 


174 


28.8 


153 


25.3 



Although there is inconclusive evidence in the table to 
show clear-cut patterns, there is a suggestion that the buck composi- 
tion decreases and the doe composition increases between the first 
and second week. The fawn composition is relatively unaltered 
between the two weeks. 



Average Size of Hunt Camp Parties by Days 



First Week 


Mon . 


Tues. 


Med. 


Thurs. 


Fri o 


Sat. 


Total 


No. Hunters 
No. Parties 
Average size 


943 
133 
7.1 


900 
125 
7.2 


874 
123 
7.1 


758 
111 
6.8 


798 
112 
7.1 


750 
109 
6.9 


5023 
713 
7.0 


Second Week 
















No. Hunters 
No. parties 
Average size 


392 
66 
5.9 


372 
61 
6.1 


292 
55 
5.3 


323 
5.6 


318 
5^ 
5.5 


290 
52 

5.6 


1987 
3 50 
5.7 



The totals for the two week period were 7010 hunters, 
1063 parties and an average party size of 6.6 hunters. This figure 
does not indicate the true average size of the party but merely the 
average party size of hunters out each day. The true figure may be 
arrived at by dividing the total numbers of hunters listed on the 
hunt camp return forms by the number of returns. In this case the 
hunters total 1131 and returns 141 hence the average size would be 
8.0 hunters per party. The discrepancy between 8.0 hunters and 
6.6 hunters is likely due to the fact that some camps designate 
one licencee as cook-for-the-day or other camps have hunters with 
that familiar "morning sickness" which renders them "hors de combat" 
for the day ? s hunt. 

Ill Field Checks 



The data in this section are results of field work done 
by the biologist and conservation officers and include district 
road checks, age studies and a brief summary of the Camp Petawawa 
military area hunting. 



- 73 - 

Orange Road Check 

On opening day, between 3.30 and 5.30 p.m., 124 hunters 
with eight deer were checked at Duke ? s Crossing on Orange Road which 
taps the civilian hunting zone on the military area. The hunter 
success and effort-per-deer of this group of casual hunters was 
6.5% and 15.5 hunter-days, respectively. When these are compared 
with the hunt camp hunters 9 opening day figures of 17.3$ and 5«$ 
hunter-days there is certainly conclusive evidence of the higher 
success enjoyed by organized hunters. The ages of these deer will 
be found elsewhere in this section. 

Camp Petawawa Forms 

Survey forms were prepared and distributed by the camp 
authorities to each casual hunter who registered to hunt on the 
military area. The return address on these forms was that of the 
Department of Lands and Forests at Pembroke. Our experience with 
this type of form last year was very discouraging, hence it was 
surprising to see that the Camp authorities had gone along with the 
forms again this year without consulting the Department. Our 
skepticism was borne out when only 52 forms were returned of the 
1000 or so distributed. The return of 5.2% (cf. 4.7% in 1955) does 
not warrant continuing the use of these forms. 

There was a tendency of the successful hunters replying 
for 29 (5$.$%) of the respondents were successful and 23 not success- 
ful. The age-class distribution shows 16 adult bucks (55.2%), 
eight adult does (27.6%) and five fawns (17.2%). The effort was very 
low - 217 hunter-days for 29 deer or 7.5 hunter-days per deer. 
Temporal distribution of the kill was not calculated for such a 
small sample but it was noted that 23 deer were killed in the first 
week and six in the second. 

A ge Studies 

A total of 191 deer ages were obtained from deer checked 
in the field and from deer jaws turned in by local hunters and by 
the local frigid locker establishment. Several sets of jaws were 
voluntarily mailed in by hunt camp hunters who had gone out on a 
week day and had not been checked at a checking station. 

A ge-Class Distribution 

Total number checked . Adult bucks - 103 (53.9) 

(Percentages in parentheses) Adult does - 5$ (30.4) 

Total fawns - 31 (15.7) 



- 79 - 



P ercentages of Adult Deer in Each Age-Class 







Bu< 


:ks 


Does 


Comb 


ined 


Ages 


Number 
34 


Percent 
43.6 


Number 
12 


Percent 
25.0 


Number 
46 


Percent 


4p 

54 


36.5 


21 




26.9 


9 


13.3 


30 


23.3 


12 




15.4 


10 


20.3 


22 


17,5 


3 




3.3 


9 


13.3 


12 


9.5 


5 




6.4 


2 


4.2 


7 


5.6 


3 




3.3 


2 


4.2 


5 


4.0 


- 




- 


4 


3.3 


4 


3.2 


TOTAL 


73 




99.9 


43 


100.1 


126 


100.1 


Unaged 


25 




24.3 


10 


17.2 


35 


21.7 


GRAND TOTAL 


103 




100.0 


53 


100 o0 


161 


100.0 




Avers 


ige 


age of 


adult bucks 


- 2.64 


years 






Avers 


L ge 


age of 


adult does 


- 3.54 


years 






Avers 


■ge 


age of 


all adults 


- 2.93 


years 





Comparison of these average age figures with those in 
Section I show the same general pattern without any significant 
difference. 

Since little information on premolar condition in yearlings 
and lactation condition in adult does was collected in the field, 
comparative analysis with similar information in Section I was not 
feasible. 

IV Comparisons , Discussion and Recommendations 

Checking Stations 

The data for the years 1954-56 show a decline in 1956 of 
success and increase in effort but not sufficiently so to worry 
about . 



1954 
1955 
1956 



Deer 

295 

394 
331 



Hunters 

344 
1004 
1137 



Days 

4434 
5720 

6343 



Success 


35< 


,0% 


39< 


,2% 


33. 


,5% 



Effort 

15.0 

14.5 
16.6 



The age-class distribution over the same period has 
remained fairly constant. 



- do - 



1954 
1955 
1956 



Adult Bucks 

40.7$ 
42 . 1$ 
46.4$ 



Adult Does 

31.2$ 

31.5$ 
27.6$ 



Fawns 

27.3$ 

26.4$ 
26.0$ 



plus 0.3$ unknown) 



When the percentages of adult deer in each age-class for 
the last three years were plotted on semi-logarithmic paper a good 
straight line relationship without any severe departure points 
was noted. The slopes of these lines have been remarkably consistent 
suggesting a well balanced herd. 

An analysis of the hunting summaries by the unit system 
indicates again that Unit II is the best area from the stand point 
of success and effort. A notable exception in 1956 was the resur- 
gence of Unit IV as one of the better areas. Formerly Unit V 
enjoyed the runner-up position behind perennial leader Unit II. 

Hunt Camps 

A comparison of success and effort for the past three 
years shows a consistency in spite of the greatly increased sample 
in 1956. 



1954 
1955 
1956 



Deer 

376 

374 
604 



Hunters 

607 

646 

1131 



Days 

3977 
4499 
7010 



Success 

61.9$ 
57 c 9$ 
53.4$ 



Effort 

10.6 
12.0 
11.6 



The success and effort for 1956 would be enhanced and 
brought up to the standard of the other two years if as suggested 
in section II the figures are revised to include moose as follows? 

(a) addition of six moose - 53.9$ and 11.5 days 

(b) addition of 30 moose - 56.1$ and 11.1 days (weighted version) 

Hunt camp success and effort figures on the unit system 
basis corroborate the checking station figures for the three years. 
Unit II remains the best area and Unit V the second best, a position 
formerly held by Unit I in both 1954 and 1955. 

The age-class distribution of hunt camp deer, with the 
exception of 1953 and 1954 when doubtful returns were made conform 
to the established pattern shown annually in the checking station 
data and in the 1955 hunt camp data. 



1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 



Adult Bucks 

53.0$ 
51.6$ 
47.6$ 
45.9$ 



Adult Does 

33.0$ 
30.6$ 

27.5$ 
23.8$ 



Fawns 

13.9$ 
17.8$ 
24.9$ 
25.3$ 



- 81' - 

Recommendations 

As usual, some hunters in the field, at the checking 
station and through the medium of survey forms and correspondence 
gave freely of their opinions and recommendations on the deer 
season, the deer populations, the congestion of hunters in certain 
areas, the use of dogs, pro and con, and similar pertinent hunting 
conditionso Generally speaking, hunters were quite satisfied with 
the 1956 deer hunt. 

Dogs continue to be one of the main focal points in deer 
hunting controversy. The use or non-use of dogs as listed in the 
141 hunt camp report forms received were tabulated. A total of 68 
parties did not use dogs at all, 16 parties used one dog each, 17 
parties used two dogs each, 13 parties used three dogs each, 19 
parties used four dogs each and four parties used five or more dogs 
each during the hunt for a grand total of 69 parties using an 
average of 2.7 dogs per party. The parties using five or more dogs 
each had in addition to their regular complement of four dogs, an 
average of two pups at camp for "breaking-in" or orientation purposes, 
Finally, four parties did not signify whether they used dogs or not. 



In conclusion, it is felt by this district that the deer 
season could be extended for one week without any adverse effect 
on the deer herd. Another recommendation is that the deer season 
open yearly on the Monday before and including the 15th of November 
for this area. This would mean that the opening would be set to 
open on the ninth at the earliest and 15th at the latest. If this 
is adhered to, the following benefits may accrues 

(1) Officials of the Department of Lands and Forests at the 
district level are besieged with queries from the public on 
the dates of the forthcoming deer season from January on. 
This is because many people have to declare their choice of 
holiday time to their employers well in advance. 

(2) Early openings with consequent warmer weather contribute to 
deterioration of venison in the woods. 

(3) There is better likelihood of ideal weather conditions for 
hunting with a later start. This would undoubtedly result in 
a larger harvest, a sound principle, management-wise. 

(4) Bush road accessibility to hunt camps would be ideal under 
frosty conditions. At the same time there would be insuffi- 
cient freezing of the waterways to discourage those using 
water routes. 



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